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Amoxicillin Capsules, Tablets, and Powder for Oral Suspension

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION 7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 8. ADVERSE REACTIONS
3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 9. OVERDOSAGE
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS 10. DRUG INTERACTIONS
5. MICROBIOLOGY 11. PHARMACOKINETICS
6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

 

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

1. DESCRIPTION

Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically, it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. The amoxicillin molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O, and the molecular weight is 419.45. It may be represented structurally as:

Capsules, tablets, and powder for oral suspension of amoxicillin are intended for oral administration.

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 250 mg or 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: CAPSULES-DRUG PRODUCT: magnesium stearate.

CAPSULE SHELL AND PRINT CONSTITUENTS: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow #10, FD&C Red #40, gelatin, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, and may also contain D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake, methylparaben, propylparaben, and silicon dioxide. In addition, the 250 mg capsule shell contains D&C Red #28 and FD&C Blue #1 and the 500 mg capsule shell may also contain FD&C Blue #1.

After mixing, each 5 mL of amoxicillin suspension, for oral administration, will contain 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: SUSPENSION: FD&C Red #40, mixed berry flavoring, silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

Each chewable tablet, for oral administration, contains 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: CHEWABLE TABLETS: cherry flavor, lactose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium citrate, and sucrose.

2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Amoxicillin is indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY β-lactamase–negative) strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below:

Infections of the ear, nose, and throat – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.

Infections of the genitourinary tract – due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis.

Infections of the skin and skin structure – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), Staphylococcus spp., or E. coli.

Infections of the lower respiratory tract – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.

Gonorrhea, acute uncomplicated (ano-genital and urethral infections) – due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).

H. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence

Triple Therapy: Amoxicillin/clarithromycin/lansoprazole

Amoxicillin, in combination with clarithromycin plus lansoprazole as triple therapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.

Dual Therapy: Amoxicillin/lansoprazole

Amoxicillin, in combination with lansoprazole delayed-release capsules as dual therapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) who are either allergic or intolerant to clarithromycin or in whom resistance to clarithromycin is known or suspected.

3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

3.1 Dosing for Adult and Pediatric Patients > 3 Months of Age

Except for gonorrhea, treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days’ treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. In some infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.

Table 1. Dosing Recommendations for Adult and Pediatric Patients > 3 Months of Age

a Dosing for infections caused by bacteria that are intermediate in their susceptibility to amoxicillin should follow the recommendations for severe infections.

b The children’s dosage is intended for individuals whose weight is less than 40 kg. Children weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to the adult recommendations.

3.2 Dosing in Neonates and Infants Aged ≤ 12 Weeks (≤ 3 Months)

Treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days’ treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. Due to incompletely developed renal function affecting elimination of amoxicillin in this age group, the recommended upper dose of amoxicillin is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours. There are currently no dosing recommendations for pediatric patients with impaired renal function.

3.3 Dosing for H. pylori Infection

Triple therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin, 500 mg clarithromycin, and 30 mg lansoprazole, all given twice daily (every 12 hours) for 14 days.

Dual therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin and 30 mg lansoprazole, each given three times daily (every 8 hours) for 14 days.

Please refer to clarithromycin and lansoprazole full prescribing information.

3.4 Dosing in Renal Impairment

• Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe.

• Severely impaired patients with a glomerular filtration rate of ≤ 30 mL/min. should not receive a 875-mg dose.

• Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection.

• Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.

• Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.

3.5 Directions for Mixing Oral Suspension

Tap bottle until all powder flows freely. Add approximately 1/3 of the total amount of water for reconstitution (see Table 2) and shake vigorously to wet powder. Add remainder of the water and again shake vigorously.

Table 2. Amount of Water for Mixing Oral Suspension

After reconstitution, the required amount of suspension should be placed directly on the child's tongue for swallowing. Alternate means of administration are to add the required amount of suspension to formula, milk, fruit juice, water, ginger ale, or cold drinks. These preparations should then be taken immediately.

NOTE: SHAKE ORAL SUSPENSION WELL BEFORE USING. Keep bottle tightly closed. Any unused portion of the reconstituted suspension must be discarded after 14 days. Refrigeration is preferable, but not required.

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of allergic reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.

5. MICROBIOLOGY

Amoxicillin is similar to ampicillin in its bactericidal action against susceptible organisms during the stage of active multiplication. It acts through the inhibition of biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide.

6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

6.1 Usage in Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

6.2 Nursing Mothers

Penicillins have been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin is administered to a nursing woman.

6.3 Pediatric Use

Because of incompletely developed renal function in neonates and young infants, the elimination of amoxicillin may be delayed. Dosing of amoxicillin should be modified in pediatric patients 12 weeks or younger (≤3 months).

6.4 Geriatric Use

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

7.1 Anaphylactic Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy including amoxicillin. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens.

7.2 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

7.3 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth or Bacterial Resistance

The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfections occur, amoxicillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Prescribing amoxicillin either in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

7.4 Use in Patients With Mononucleosis

A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus amoxicillin should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.

7.5 PHENYLKETONURICS

Amoxicillin chewable tablets contain aspartame which contains phenylalanine. Each 200 mg chewable tablet contains 1.82 mg phenylalanine; each 400 mg chewable tablet contains 3.64 mg phenylalanine. The oral suspensions of amoxicillin do not contain phenylalanine and can be used by phenylketonurics.

8. ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

• Anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions]

• CDAD [see Warnings and Precautions]

8.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The most common adverse reactions (> 1%) observed in clinical trials of amoxicillin capsules, tablets or oral suspension were diarrhea, rash, vomiting, and nausea.

Triple therapy: The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/ lansoprazole) were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%).

Dual therapy: The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received double therapy amoxicillin/lansoprazole were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). For more information on adverse reactions with clarithromycin or lansoprazole, refer to the Adverse Reactions section of their package inserts.

8.2 Postmarketing or Other Experience

In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during postmarketing use of penicillins. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin.

Infections and Infestations: Mucocutaneous candidiasis.

Gastrointestinal: Black hairy tongue, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment [see Warnings and Precautions].

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions]. Serum sickness–like reactions, erythematous maculopapular rashes, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and urticaria have been reported.

Liver: A moderate rise in AST and/or ALT has been noted, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction including cholestatic jaundice, hepatic cholestasis and acute cytolytic hepatitis have been reported.

Renal: Crystalluria has been reported [see Overdosage].

Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.

Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, agitation, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, convulsions, behavioral changes, and/or dizziness have been reported.

Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.

9. OVERDOSAGE

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms and do not require gastric emptying.

Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin.

Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria.

Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis.

10. DRUG INTERACTIONS

10.1 Probenecid

Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use of amoxicillin and probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin.

10.2 Oral Anticoagulants

Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.

10.3 Allopurinol

The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.

10.4 Oral Contraceptives

Amoxicillin may affect the gut flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.

10.5 Other Antibacterials

Chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines may interfere with the bactericidal effects of penicillin. This has been demonstrated in vitro; however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not well documented.

10.6 Effects on Laboratory Tests

High urine concentrations of ampicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict's Solution, or Fehling's Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as CLINISTIX®) be used.

Following administration of ampicillin or amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.

11. PHARMACOKINETICS

Absorption:

Amoxicillin is stable in the presence of gastric acid and is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The effect of food on the absorption of amoxicillin from the tablets and suspension of amoxicillin has been partially investigated; 400-mg and 875-mg formulations have been studied only when administered at the start of a light meal.

Orally administered doses of 250-mg and 500-mg amoxicillin capsules result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL and 5.5 mcg/mL to 7.5 mcg/mL, respectively.

Mean amoxicillin pharmacokinetic parameters from an open, two-part, single-dose crossover bioequivalence study in 27 adults comparing 875 mg of amoxicillin with 875 mg of AUGMENTIN® (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium) showed that the 875-mg tablet of amoxicillin produces an AUC0-∞ of 35.4 ± 8.1 mcg•hr/mL and a Cmax of 13.8 ± 4.1 mcg/mL. Dosing was at the start of a light meal following an overnight fast.

Orally administered doses of amoxicillin suspension, 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL, result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 1.5 mcg/mL to 3.0 mcg/mL and 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL, respectively.

Oral administration of single doses of 400-mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension of amoxicillin to 24 adult volunteers yielded comparable pharmacokinetic data:

Table 3: Mean Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Amoxicillin (400 mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension) in Healthy Adults

* Administered at the start of a light meal.

† Mean values of 24 normal volunteers. Peak concentrations occurred approximately 1 hour after the dose.

Distribution:

Amoxicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids, with the exception of brain and spinal fluid, except when meninges are inflamed. In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound. Following a 1-gram dose and utilizing a special skin window technique to determine levels of the antibiotic, it was noted that therapeutic levels were found in the interstitial fluid.

Metabolism and Excretion:

The half-life of amoxicillin is 61.3 minutes. Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose of amoxicillin is excreted in the urine within 6 to 8 hours. Detectable serum levels are observed up to 8 hours after an orally administered dose of amoxicillin. Since most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine, its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

1) How Available:

a) Brand name: AMOXIL (discontinued), by GLAXOSMITHKLINE.

b) Generic drugs: AMOXICILLIN, by various manufacturers.

2) How Supplied:

Amoxicillin capsules USP (by TEVA): Caramel and buff colored capsules are imprinted “93” - “3107” and contain 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate; buff colored capsules are imprinted “93” - “3109” and contain 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

250 mg available in bottles of 100, 500, and in unit dose cartons of 100 (10 x 10).

500 mg available in bottles of 50, 500, and in unit dose cartons of 100 (10 x 10).

Amoxicillin for oral suspension USP (by TEVA): Each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension, when reconstituted according to directions on the container label, contains 125 mg or 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

125 mg/5 mL available in bottles of 80 mL, 100 mL, and 150 mL.

250 mg/5 mL available in bottles of 80 mL, 100 mL, and 150 mL.

Amoxicillin tablets USP (chewable) (by TEVA): White to off-white, capsule-shaped tablets, debossed “93” on one side and “2267” on the other side, contain 125 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate; white to off-white, capsule-shaped tablets, partial bisect and debossed “93” on one side and “2268” on the other side, contain 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

125 mg available in bottles of 100.

250 mg available in bottles of 100 and 500.

3) Storage:

Store at at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Dispense in a tight container.

Rx only

Rev 11/11