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Cabergoline Tablet

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION 7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 8. ADVERSE REACTIONS
3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 9. OVERDOSAGE
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS 10. DRUG INTERACTIONS
5. MECHANISM OF ACTION 11. PHARMACOKINETICS
6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

 

1. DESCRIPTION

Cabergoline is a dopamine receptor agonist.

Its empirical formula is C26H37N5O2, and its molecular weight is 451.62. The structural formula is as follows:

Cabergoline is a white powder soluble in ethyl alcohol, chloroform, and N, Ndimethylformamide (DMF); slightly soluble in 0.1N hydrochloric acid; very slightly soluble in n-hexane; and insoluble in water.

Cabergoline tablets, for oral administration, contain 0.5 mg of cabergoline. Inactive ingredients consist of leucine, USP, and lactose, NF.

2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Cabergoline tablets are indicated for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders, either idiopathic or due to pituitary adenomas.

3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Before initiating treatment, cardiovascular evaluation should be performed and echocardiography should be considered to assess for valvular disease.

The recommended dosage of cabergoline tablets for initiation of therapy is 0.25 mg twice a week. Dosage may be increased by 0.25 mg twice weekly up to a dosage of 1 mg twice a week according to the patient’s serum prolactin level.

Dosage increases should not occur more rapidly than every 4 weeks, so that the physician can assess the patient’s response to each dosage level. If the patient does not respond adequately, and no additional benefit is observed with higher doses, the lowest dose that achieved maximal response should be used and other therapeutic approaches considered. Patients receiving long term treatment with cabergoline should undergo periodic assessment of their cardiac status and echocardiography should be considered.

After a normal serum prolactin level has been maintained for 6 months, cabergoline may be discontinued, with periodic monitoring of the serum prolactin level to determine whether or when treatment with cabergoline should be reinstituted. The durability of efficacy beyond 24 months of therapy with cabergoline has not been established.

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS

Cabergoline tablets are contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension or known hypersensitivity to ergot derivatives.

5. MECHANISM OF ACTION

The secretion of prolactin by the anterior pituitary is mainly under hypothalamic inhibitory control, likely exerted through release of dopamine by tuberoinfundibular neurons. Cabergoline is a long-acting dopamine receptor agonist with a high affinity for D2 receptors. Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that cabergoline exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the secretion of prolactin by rat pituitary lactotrophs. Cabergoline decreased serum prolactin levels in reserpinized rats. Receptor-binding studies indicate that cabergoline has low affinity for dopamine D1, α1- and α2-adrenergic, and 5-HT1- and 5-HT2-serotonin receptors.

6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

6.1 Usage in Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed with cabergoline in mice, rats, and rabbits administered by gavage.

(Multiples of the maximum recommended human dose in this section are calculated on a body surface area basis using total mg/m2/week for animals and mg/m2/week for a 50 kg human.)

There were maternotoxic effects but no teratogenic effects in mice given cabergoline at doses up to 8 mg/kg/day (approximately 55 times the maximum recommended human dose) during the period of organogenesis.

A dose of 0.012 mg/kg/day (approximately 1/7 the maximum recommended human dose) during the period of organogenesis in rats caused an increase in post-implantation embryofetal losses. These losses could be due to the prolactin inhibitory properties of cabergoline in rats. At daily doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 19 times the maximum recommended human dose) during the period of organogenesis in the rabbit, cabergoline caused maternotoxicity characterized by a loss of body weight and decreased food consumption. Doses of 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 150 times the maximum recommended human dose) during the period of organogenesis in the rabbit caused an increased occurrence of various malformations. However, in another study in rabbits, no treatment-related malformations or embryofetotoxicity were observed at doses up to 8 mg/kg/day (approximately 300 times the maximum recommended human dose).

In rats, doses higher than 0.003 mg/kg/day (approximately 1/28 the maximum recommended human dose) from 6 days before parturition and throughout the lactation period inhibited growth and caused death of offspring due to decreased milk secretion.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

6.2 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from cabergoline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Use of cabergoline for the inhibition or suppression of physiologic lactation is not recommended.

The prolactin-lowering action of cabergoline suggests that it will interfere with lactation. Due to this interference with lactation, cabergoline should not be given to women postpartum who are breastfeeding or who are planning to breastfeed.

6.3 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of cabergoline in pediatric patients have not been established.

6.4 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of cabergoline did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

WARNINGS

1. Pregnancy: Dopamine agonists in general should not be used in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, for example, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and post partum hypertension, unless the potential benefit is judged to outweigh the possible risk.

2. Fibrotic Complications:

a. Cardiac Valvulopathy:

All patients should undergo a cardiovascular evaluation, including echocardiogram to assess the potential presence of valvular disease. If valvular disease is detected, the patient should not be treated with cabergoline (See CONTRAINDICATIONS). Postmarketing cases of cardiac valvulopathy have been reported in patients receiving cabergoline. These cases have generally occurred during administration of high doses of cabergoline (>2 mg/day) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Cases of cardiac valvulopathy have also been reported in patients receiving lower doses of cabergoline for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders.

A multi-country, retrospective cohort study using general practice records and record linkage systems in the UK, Italy and the Netherlands was conducted to assess the association between new use of dopamine agonists including cabergoline (n = 27,812) for Parkinson’s disease and hyperprolactinemia and cardiac valvular regurgitation (CVR), other fibroses, and other cardiopulmonary events over a maximum of 12 years of follow up. In this study, the use of cabergoline among persons with Parkinson's disease was associated with an increased risk of CVR when compared to non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists (DAs) and levodopa [Incidence Rate (IR) per 10,000 person years of 68.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 37.2-115.3) for cabergoline vs. 10.0 (95% CI: 5.2-19.4) for non-ergot DAs and 11.3 (95% CI: 7.2 -17.0) for levodopa]. In the study analysis confined to persons with dopamine agonist-treated hyperprolactinemia (n=8,386), when compared to non-use (n=15,147), persons exposed to cabergoline did not have an elevated risk of CVR. The findings with respect to the risk of CVR associated with cabergoline treatment for persons with Parkinson’s disease (increased risk) and those with hyperprolactinemia (no increased risk) are consistent with the findings in other published studies.

Physicians should use the lowest effective dose of cabergoline for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders and should periodically reassess the need for continuing therapy with cabergoline. Following treatment initiation, clinical and diagnostic monitoring (for example, chest x-ray, CT scan and cardiac echocardiogram) should be conducted to assess the risk of cardiac valvulopathy. The recommended frequency of routine echocardiographic monitoring is every 6 to 12 months or as clinically indicated with the presence of signs and symptoms such as edema, new cardiac murmur, dyspnea, or congestive heart failure.

Cabergoline should be discontinued if an echocardiogram reveals new valvular regurgitation, valvular restriction or valve leaflet thickening.

Cabergoline should be used with caution in patients exposed to other medications associated with valvulopathy.

b. Extracardiac Fibrotic Reactions:

Postmarketing cases of pleural, pericardial, and retroperitoneal fibrosis have been reported following administration of cabergoline. Some reports were in patients previously treated with other ergotinic dopamine agonists. Cabergoline should not be used in patients with a history of cardiac or extracardiac fibrotic disorders.

Fibrotic disorders can have an insidious onset and patients should be monitored for manifestations of progressive fibrosis. Therefore, during treatment, attention should be paid to the signs and symptoms of:

• Pleuro-pulmonary disease such as dyspnea, shortness of breath, persistent cough or chest pain.

• Renal insufficiency or ureteral/abdominal vascular obstruction that may occur with pain in the loin/flank and lower limb edema as well as any possible abdominal masses or tenderness that may indicate retroperitoneal fibrosis.

• Cardiac failure: Cases of valvular and pericardial fibrosis have often manifested as cardiac failure. Therefore, valvular fibrosis (and constrictive pericarditis) should be excluded if such symptoms occur.

Clinical and diagnostic monitoring such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, chest-x ray, serum creatinine measurements, and other investigations should be considered at baseline and as necessary while patients are treated with cabergoline.

Following diagnosis of pleural effusion or pulmonary fibrosis, the discontinuance of cabergoline was reported to result in improvement of signs and symptoms.

PRECAUTIONS

General:

Initial doses higher than 1.0 mg may produce orthostatic hypotension. Care should be exercised when administering cabergoline with other medications known to lower blood pressure.

Postpartum Lactation Inhibition or Suppression: Cabergoline is not indicated for the inhibition or suppression of physiologic lactation. Use of bromocriptine, another dopamine agonist for this purpose, has been associated with cases of hypertension, stroke, and seizures.

Hepatic Impairment: Since cabergoline is extensively metabolized by the liver, caution should be used, and careful monitoring exercised, when administering cabergoline to patients with hepatic impairment.

Psychiatric: Pathological gambling, increased libido, and hypersexuality have been reported in patients treated with dopamine agonists including cabergoline. This has been generally reversible upon reduction of the dose or treatment discontinuation (See Postmarketing Surveillance data).

Information for Patients:

Patients should be instructed to notify their physician if they suspect they are pregnant, become pregnant, or intend to become pregnant during therapy. A pregnancy test should be done if there is any suspicion of pregnancy and continuation of treatment should be discussed with their physician.

Patients should notify their physician if they develop shortness of breath, persistent cough, difficulty with breathing when lying down, or swelling in their extremities.

8. ADVERSE REACTIONS

The safety of DOSTINEX tablets has been evaluated in more than 900 patients with hyperprolactinemic disorders. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity.

In a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, treatment consisted of placebo or cabergoline at fixed doses of 0.125, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 mg twice weekly. Doses were halved during the first week. Since a possible dose-related effect was observed for nausea only, the four cabergoline treatment groups have been combined. The incidence of the most common adverse events during the placebo-controlled study is presented in the following table.

Table 1. Incidence of Reported Adverse Events During the 4-Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

* Reported at ≥1% for cabergoline

In the 8-week, double-blind period of the comparative trial with bromocriptine, DOSTINEX (at a dose of 0.5 mg twice weekly) was discontinued because of an adverse event in 4 of 221 patients (2%) while bromocriptine (at a dose of 2.5 mg two times a day) was discontinued in 14 of 231 patients (6%). The most common reasons for discontinuation from DOSTINEX were headache, nausea and vomiting (3, 2 and 2 patients respectively); the most common reasons for discontinuation from bromocriptine were nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness or vertigo (10, 3, 3, and 3 patients respectively). The incidence of the most common adverse events during the double-blind portion of the comparative trial with bromocriptine is presented in the following table.

Table 2. Incidence of Reported Adverse Events During the 8-Week, Double-Blind Period of the Comparative Trial With Bromocriptine

* Reported at ≥1% for cabergoline

The safety of cabergoline has been evaluated in approximately 1,200 patients with Parkinson’s disease in controlled and uncontrolled studies at dosages of up to 11.5 mg/day which greatly exceeds the maximum recommended dosage of cabergoline for hyperprolactinemic disorders. In addition to the adverse events that occurred in the patients with hyperprolactinemic disorders, the most common adverse events in patients with Parkinson’s disease were dyskinesia, hallucinations, confusion, and peripheral edema. Heart failure, pleural effusion, pulmonary fibrosis, and gastric or duodenal ulcer occurred rarely. One case of constrictive pericarditis has been reported.

Postmarketing Surveillance Data: The following events have been reported in association with DOSTINEX: cardiac valvulopathy and extracardiac fibrotic reactions, (See WARNINGS, Cardiac Valvulopathy and Extracardiac Fibrotic Reactions).

Others events have been reported in association with cabergoline: hypersexuality, increased libido, pathological gambling (See PRECAUTIONS, Psychiatric). In addition, cases of alopecia, aggression and psychotic disorder have been reported in patients taking DOSTINEX. Some of these reports have been in patients who have had prior adverse reactions to dopamine agonist products.

9. OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage might be expected to produce nasal congestion, syncope, or hallucinations. Measures to support blood pressure should be taken if necessary.

10. DRUG INTERACTIONS

Cabergoline should not be administered concurrently with D2-antagonists, such as phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, or metoclopramide.

11. PHARMACOKINETICS

Absorption: Following single oral doses of 0.5 mg to 1.5 mg given to 12 healthy adult volunteers, mean peak plasma levels of 30 to 70 picograms (pg)/mL of cabergoline were observed within 2 to 3 hours. Over the 0.5-to-7 mg dose range, cabergoline plasma levels appeared to be dose-proportional in 12 healthy adult volunteers and nine adult parkinsonian patients. A repeat-dose study in 12 healthy volunteers suggests that steadystate levels following a once-weekly dosing schedule are expected to be twofold to threefold higher than after a single dose. The absolute bioavailability of cabergoline is unknown. A significant fraction of the administered dose undergoes a first-pass effect. The elimination half-life of cabergoline estimated from urinary data of 12 healthy subjects ranged between 63 to 69 hours. The prolonged prolactin-lowering effect of cabergoline may be related to its slow elimination and long half-life.

Distribution: In animals, based on total radioactivity, cabergoline (and/or its metabolites) has shown extensive tissue distribution. Radioactivity in the pituitary exceeded that in plasma by >100-fold and was eliminated with a half-life of approximately 60 hours. This finding is consistent with the long-lasting prolactin-lowering effect of the drug. Whole body autoradiography studies in pregnant rats showed no fetal uptake but high levels in the uterine wall. Significant radioactivity (parent plus metabolites) detected in the milk of lactating rats suggests a potential for exposure to nursing infants. The drug is extensively distributed throughout the body. Cabergoline is moderately bound (40% to 42%) to human plasma proteins in a concentration-independent manner. Concomitant dosing of highly protein-bound drugs is unlikely to affect its disposition.

Metabolism: In both animals and humans, cabergoline is extensively metabolized, predominately via hydrolysis of the acylurea bond or the urea moiety. Cytochrome P-450 mediated metabolism appears to be minimal. Cabergoline does not cause enzyme induction and/or inhibition in the rat. Hydrolysis of the acylurea or urea moiety abolishes the prolactin-lowering effect of cabergoline, and major metabolites identified thus far do not contribute to the therapeutic effect.

Excretion: After oral dosing of radioactive cabergoline to five healthy volunteers, approximately 22% and 60% of the dose was excreted within 20 days in the urine and feces, respectively. Less than 4% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. Nonrenal and renal clearances for cabergoline are about 3.2 L/min and 0.08 L/min, respectively. Urinary excretion in hyperprolactinemic patients was similar.

12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

1) How Available:

a) Brand name: DOSTINEX (discontinued), by PHARMACIA AND UPJOHN.

b) Generic drugs: Cabergoline, by various manufacturers.

2) How Supplied:

Cabergoline tablets (by PAR PHARM) are a white to off-white, oval shape, flat face, beveled edge tablet containing 0.5 mg cabergoline. Each tablet is debossed “P” bisect line “P” on one side and “673" on the other side. Cabergoline tablets are available as follows:

Bottles of 8 tablets, NDC 49884-673-14

3) Storage: Store at controlled room temperature 20°to 25°C (68°to 77°F) [see USP].

Rx only

Rev 08/11