TABLE OF CONTENTS
Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models.
The empirical formula for celecoxib is C17H14F3N3O2S, and the molecular weight is 381.38. It has the following chemical structure:
Celecoxib oral capsules contain either 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg or 400 mg of celecoxib.
The inactive ingredients in celecoxib capsules include: croscarmellose sodium, edible inks, gelatin, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone and sodium lauryl sulfate.
|2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE|
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of celecoxib and other treatment options before deciding to use celecoxib. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.
Celecoxib is indicated in:
2.1 Osteoarthritis (OA): For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis.
2.2 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in adults.
2.3 Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA): For relief of the signs and symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in patients 2 years and older.
2.4 Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): For the relief of signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis.
2.5 Acute pain: For the management of acute pain in adults.
2.6 Primary dysmenorrhea: For the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
|3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION|
Use lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals for the individual patient.
These doses can be given without regard to timing of meals.
3.1 Osteoarthritis: For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis: 200 mg per day administered as a single dose or as 100 mg twice per day.
3.2 Rheumatoid arthritis: For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in adults: 100 to 200 mg twice per day.
3.3 Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: For relief of the signs and symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in patients 2 years and older:
≥10 kg to ≤25 kg: 50 mg twice daily.
>25 kg: 100 mg twice daily.
For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of a celecoxib capsule can be added to applesauce. The entire capsule contents are carefully emptied onto a level teaspoon of cool or room temperature applesauce and ingested immediately with water. The sprinkled capsule contents on applesauce are stable for up to 6 hours under refrigerated conditions (2-8° C/ 35-45° F).
3.4 Ankylosing spondylitis: For the relief of signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis: 200 mg daily single (once per day) or divided (twice per day) doses. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks, a trial of 400 mg daily may be worthwhile. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks on 400 mg daily, a response is not likely and consideration should be given to alternate treatment options.
3.5 Acute pain: For the management of acute pain in adults: 400 mg initially, followed by an additional 200 mg dose if needed on the first day. On subsequent days, the recommended dose is 200 mg twice daily as needed.
3.6 Primary dysmenorrhea: For the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: 400 mg initially, followed by an additional 200 mg dose if needed on the first day. On subsequent days, the recommended dose is 200 mg twice daily as needed.
3.7 Special Populations
Hepatic insufficiency: The daily recommended dose of celecoxib capsules in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) should be reduced by approximately 50%. The use of celecoxib in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended.
Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates: Patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers based on previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin) should be administered celecoxib with caution. Consider starting treatment at half the lowest recommended dose in poor metabolizers. Consider using alternative management in JRA patients who are poor metabolizers. [see Use in Specific populations].
Celecoxib is contraindicated:
• In patients with known hypersensitivity to celecoxib, aspirin, or other NSAIDs.
• In patients who have demonstrated allergic-type reactions to sulfonamides.
• In patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe anaphylactoid reactions to NSAIDs, some of them fatal, have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions].
• For the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions].
|5. MECHANISM OF ACTION|
The mechanism of action of celecoxib is believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and at therapeutic concentrations in humans, celecoxib does not inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) isoenzyme.
|6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS|
6.1 Usage in Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
6.2 Nursing Mothers
Limited data from one subject indicate that celecoxib is also excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from celecoxib, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
6.3 Pediatric Use
Celecoxib is approved for relief of the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years and older. Safety and efficacy have not been studied beyond six months in children. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to celecoxib has not been evaluated and it is unknown if long-term risks may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to celecoxib or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDS.
6.4 Geriatric Use
No substantial differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In clinical studies comparing renal function as measured by the GFR, BUN and creatinine, and platelet function as measured by bleeding time and platelet aggregation, the results were not different between elderly and young volunteers. However, as with other NSAIDs, including those that selectively inhibit COX-2, there have been more spontaneous post-marketing reports of fatal GI events and acute renal failure in the elderly than in younger patients.
|7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS|
7.1 Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Chronic use of celecoxib may cause an increased risk of serious adverse cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. In the APC trial, the relative risk for the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 – 8.5) for celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.5 (95% CI 1.0 – 6.4) for the celecoxib 200 mg twice daily compared to placebo.
All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with celecoxib, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV toxicity and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and celecoxib does increase the risk of serious GI events (see GI WARNINGS - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a different COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
As with all NSAIDS, celecoxib can lead to the onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including celecoxib, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure should be monitored closely during the initiation of therapy with celecoxib and throughout the course of therapy. The rates of hypertension from the CLASS trial in the celecoxib, ibuprofen and diclofenac treated patients were 2.4%, 4.2% and 2.5%, respectively.
7.3 Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs, including celecoxib (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). In the CLASS study, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months of peripheral edema in patients on celecoxib 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively, and the approved dose for FAP), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily and diclofenac 75 mg twice daily were 4.5%, 6.9% and 4.7%, respectively. Celecoxib should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
7.4 Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects — Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation NSAIDs, including celecoxib, can cause serious gastrointestinal events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates were 0.78% at nine months for all patients in the CLASS trial, and 2.19% for the subgroup on low dose ASA. Patients 65 years of age and older had an incidence of 1.40% at nine months, 3.06% when also taking ASA. With longer duration of use of NSAIDs, there is a trend for increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in patients with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Physicians and patients should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during celecoxib therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. For high-risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
7.5 Hepatic Effects: Borderline elevations of one or more liver associated enzymes may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, and notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately 3 or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure (some with fatal outcome) have been reported with NSAIDs, including celecoxib. In controlled clinical trials of celecoxib, the incidence of borderline elevations (greater than or equal to 1.2 times and less than 3 times the upper limit of normal) of liver associated enzymes was 6% for celecoxib and 5% for placebo, and approximately 0.2% of patients taking celecoxib and 0.3% of patients taking placebo had notable elevations of ALT and AST.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be monitored carefully for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with celecoxib. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), celecoxib should be discontinued.
7.6 Renal Effects
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state. Clinical trials with celecoxib have shown renal effects similar to those observed with comparator NSAIDs.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of celecoxib in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with celecoxib is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If celecoxib therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.
7.7 Anaphylactoid Reactions
As with NSAIDs in general, anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients without known prior exposure to celecoxib. In post-marketing experience, rare cases of anaphylactic reactions and angioedema have been reported in patients receiving celecoxib. Celecoxib should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS — Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
7.8 Skin Reactions
Celecoxib is a sulfonamide and can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TENS), which can be fatal. These serious events can occur without warning and in patients without prior known sulfa allergy. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
In late pregnancy celecoxib should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus (see PRECAUTIONS – Pregnancy).
7.10 Corticosteroid Treatment
Celecoxib cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to exacerbation of corticosteroid-responsive illness. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
7.11 Hematological Effects
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving celecoxib. In controlled clinical trials the incidence of anemia was 0.6% with celecoxib and 0.4% with placebo. Patients on long-term treatment with celecoxib should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia or blood loss. Celecoxib does not generally affect platelet counts, prothrombin time (PT), or partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and does not inhibit platelet aggregation at indicated dosages.
7.12 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Celecoxib should be used only with caution in pediatric patients with systemic onset JRA due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
7.13 Preexisting Asthma
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, celecoxib should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
7.14 Laboratory Tests
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have a CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If abnormal liver tests or renal tests persist or worsen, celecoxib should be discontinued.
In controlled clinical trials, elevated BUN occurred more frequently in patients receiving celecoxib compared with patients on placebo. This laboratory abnormality was also seen in patients who received comparator NSAIDs in these studies. The clinical significance of this abnormality has not been established.
7.15 GI Cancer in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Treatment with celecoxib in FAP has not been shown to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer or the need for prophylactic colectomy or other FAP-related surgeries. Therefore, the usual care of FAP patients should not be altered because of the concurrent administration of celecoxib. In particular, the frequency of routine endoscopic surveillance should not be decreased and prophylactic colectomy or other FAP-related surgeries should not be delayed.
The pharmacological activity of celecoxib in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting infectious complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
7.17 Concomitant NSAID Use
The concomitant use of celecoxib with any dose of a non-aspirin NSAID should be avoided due to the potential for increased risk of adverse reactions.
|8. ADVERSE REACTIONS|
Of the celecoxib-treated patients in the pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, approximately 4,250 were patients with OA, approximately 2,100 were patients with RA, and approximately 1,050 were patients with post-surgical pain. More than 8,500 patients received a total daily dose of celecoxib of 200 mg (100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily) or more, including more than 400 treated at 800 mg (400 mg twice daily). Approximately 3,900 patients received celecoxib at these doses for 6 months or more; approximately 2,300 of these have received it for 1 year or more and 124 of these have received it for 2 years or more.
8.1 Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials
Table 1 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, occurring in ≥2% of patients receiving celecoxib from 12 controlled studies conducted in patients with OA or RA that included a placebo and/or a positive control group. Since these 12 trials were of different durations, and patients in the trials may not have been exposed for the same duration of time, these percentages do not capture cumulative rates of occurrence.
Table 1: Adverse Events Occurring in >2% of Celecoxib Patients from Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials
CBX = Celecoxib 100 – 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily;
NAP = Naproxen 500 mg twice daily;
DCF = Diclofenac 75 mg twice daily;
IBU = Ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily.
In placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was 7.1% for patients receiving celecoxib and 6.1% for patients receiving placebo. Among the most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse events in the celecoxib treatment groups were dyspepsia and abdominal pain (cited as reasons for discontinuation in 0.8% and 0.7% of celecoxib patients, respectively). Among patients receiving placebo, 0.6% discontinued due to dyspepsia and 0.6% withdrew due to abdominal pain.
The following adverse reactions occurred in 0.1 - 1.9% of patients treated with celecoxib (100 - 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily):
Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diverticulitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, melena, dry mouth, stomatitis, tenesmus, vomiting
Cardiovascular: Aggravated hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disorder, myocardial infarction
General: Allergy aggravated, allergic reaction, chest pain, cyst NOS, edema generalized, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, pain, peripheral pain
Central, peripheral nervous system: Leg cramps, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, migraine, paresthesia, vertigo
Hearing and vestibular: Deafness, tinnitus
Heart rate and rhythm: Palpitation, tachycardia
Liver and biliary: Hepatic function abnormal, SGOT increased, SGPT increased
Metabolic and nutritional: BUN increased, CPK increased, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, NPN increased, creatinine increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, weight increased
Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthrosis, myalgia, synovitis, tendinitis
Platelets (bleeding or clotting): Ecchymosis, epistaxis, thrombocythemia,
Psychiatric: Anorexia, anxiety, appetite increased, depression, nervousness, somnolence
Respiratory: Bronchitis, bronchospasm, bronchospasm aggravated, coughing, dyspnea, laryngitis, pneumonia
Skin and appendages: Alopecia, dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin dry, sweating increased, urticaria
Application site disorders: Cellulitis, dermatitis contact
Urinary: Albuminuria, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, micturition frequency, renal calculus
The following serious adverse events (causality not evaluated) occurred in < 0.1% of patients (cases reported only in post-marketing experience are indicated in italics):
Cardiovascular: Syncope, congestive heart failure, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, peripheral gangrene, thrombophlebitis, vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis
Gastrointestinal: Intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, colitis with bleeding, esophageal perforation, pancreatitis, ileus
Liver and biliary: Cholelithiasis, hepatitis, jaundice, liver failure
Hemic and lymphatic: Thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis,aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leucopenia
Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia
Nervous: Ataxia, suicide, aseptic meningitis, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial hemorrhage [see Drug Interactions]
Renal: Acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis
Skin: Erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis
General: Sepsis, sudden death, anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema
No overdoses of celecoxib were reported during clinical trials. Doses up to 2400 mg/day for up to 10 days in 12 patients did not result in serious toxicity. Symptoms following acute NSAID overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. No information is available regarding the removal of celecoxib by hemodialysis, but based on its high degree of plasma protein binding (>97%) dialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose. Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS|
General: Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 2C9 in the liver. Co-administration of celecoxib with drugs that are known to inhibit 2C9 should be done with caution.
In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by P450 2D6.
ACE-inhibitors: Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking celecoxib concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.
Aspirin: Celecoxib can be used with low-dose aspirin. However, concomitant administration of aspirin with celecoxib increases the rate of GI ulceration or other complications, compared to use of celecoxib alone.
Because of its lack of platelet effects, celecoxib is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis.
Fluconazole: Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole (see Pharmacokinetics — Metabolism). Celecoxib should be introduced at the lowest recommended dose in patients receiving fluconazole.
Furosemide: Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Lithium: In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone. Patients on lithium treatment should be closely monitored when celecoxib is introduced or withdrawn.
Methotrexate: In an interaction study of rheumatoid arthritis patients taking methotrexate, celecoxib did not have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate.
Warfarin: Anticoagulant activity should be monitored, particularly in the first few days, after initiating or changing celecoxib therapy in patients receiving warfarin or similar agents, since these patients are at an increased risk of bleeding complications. The effect of celecoxib on the anticoagulant effect of warfarin was studied in a group of healthy subjects receiving daily doses of 2-5 mg of warfarin. In these subjects, celecoxib did not alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin as determined by prothrombin time. However, in post-marketing experience, serious bleeding events, some of which were fatal, have been reported, predominantly in the elderly, in association with increases in prothrombin time in patients receiving celecoxib concurrently with warfarin.
Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hrs after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose proportional up to 200 mg twice daily; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in Cmax and AUC (see Food Effects). Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steady state conditions are
reached on or before Day 5.
When celecoxib capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in Cmax and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media. Coadministration of celecoxib with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacid resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in Cmax and 10% in AUC. Celecoxib, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg BID) should be administered with food to improve absorption.
In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in Cmax, Tmax or T1/2 after administration of capsule contents on applesauce.
In healthy subjects, celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α1-acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss/F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells.
Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via cytochrome P450 2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors. Patients who are known or suspected to be P450 2C9 poor metabolizers based on a previous history should be administered celecoxib with caution as they may have abnormally high plasma levels due to reduced metabolic clearance.
Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little (<3%) unchanged drug recovered in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 57% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 27% was excreted into the urine. The primary metabolite in both urine and feces was the carboxylic acid metabolite (73% of dose) with low amounts of the glucuronide also appearing in the urine. It appears that the low solubility of the drug prolongs the absorption process making terminal half-life (t1/2) determinations more variable. The effective half-life is approximately 11 hours under fasted conditions. The apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) is about 500 mL/min.
|12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING|
1) How Available:
a) Brand name: CELEBREX, by GD SEARLE.
b) Generic drugs: None.
2) How Supplied:
CELEBREX 50-mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on red band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 50 on the body, supplied as:
Bottle of 60: NDC 0025-1515-01
CELEBREX 100-mg capsules are white, reverse printed white on blue band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 100 on the body, supplied as:
Bottle of 100: NDC 0025-1520-31
Bottle of 500: NDC 0025-1520-51
Carton of 100 unit dose: NDC 0025-1520-34
CELEBREX 200-mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on gold band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 200 on the body, supplied as:
Bottle of 100: NDC 0025-1525-31
Bottle of 500: NDC 0025-1525-51
Carton of 100 unit dose: 0025-1525-34
CELEBREX 400-mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on green band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 400 on the body, supplied as:
Bottle of 60: NDC 0025-1530-02
Carton of 100 unit dose: NDC 0025-1530-01
3) Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F).