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Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules and Tablets

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION 7. DRUG INTERACTIONS
2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 9. OVERDOSAGE
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS 10. MECHANISM OF ACTION
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 11. PHARMACOKINETICS
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS 12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

1. DESCRIPTION

Doxycycline hyclate is a broad-spectrum antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline, and is available as doxycycline hyclate (doxycycline hydrochloride hemiethanolate hemihydrate). The chemical designation for doxycycline hyclate is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride, compound with ethyl alcohol (2:1), monohydrate. Doxycycline hyclate is a yellow crystalline powder which is soluble in water.

Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum.

Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form. The structural formula is represented below:

Empirical Formula: (C22H24N2O8•HCl)2•C2H6O•H2O

M.W. 1025.89

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains doxycycline hyclate, equivalent to 50 mg or 100 mg of doxycycline.

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains doxycycline hyclate, equivalent to 75 mg, 100 mg or 150 mg of doxycycline.

Doxycycline hyclate capsules USP 50 mg and 100 mg contain the following inactive ingredients: magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose.

The capsule shells contain: FD&C Blue No. 1, gelatin, silicon dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide.

Doxycycline hyclate tablets USP 100 mg contain the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide.

Inactive ingredients in the ACTICLATE tablet formulation are: microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium and magnesium stearate. Film-coating contains: polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, FD&C Blue #1 (75 mg), FD&C Yellow #6 (75 mg), FD&C Blue #2 (150 mg) and yellow iron oxide (150 mg).

LYMEPAK tablets, for oral administration, contain 100 mg of doxycycline (equivalent to 115 mg doxycycline hyclate). Inert ingredients in the tablet formulation are: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C yellow #10, FD&C blue #1, FD&C yellow #6, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, stearic acid, and titanium dioxide.

2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

2.1 Rickettsial Infections

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.

2.2 Sexually Transmitted Infections

Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.

Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.

2.3 Respiratory Tract Infections

Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.

Respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.

Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

2.4 Specific Bacterial Infections

Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.

Plague due to Yersinia pestis.

Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.

Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.

Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.

Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).

Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Escherichia coli

Enterobacter aerogenes

Shigella species

Acinetobacter species

Urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.

2.5 Ophthalmic Infections

Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.

Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

2.6 Anthrax Including Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

2.7 Alternative Treatment for Selected Infections when Penicillin is Contraindicated

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.

Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.

Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.

Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.

Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.

Infections caused by Clostridium species.

2.8 Adjunctive Therapy for Acute Intestinal Amebiasis and Severe Acne

In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

2.9 Prophylaxis of Malaria

Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (less than 4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains [see Dosage and Administration (3.2)].

2.10 Lyme Disease

LYMEPAK is indicated for the treatment of early Lyme disease (as evidenced by erythema migrans) due to Borrelia burgdorferi in adults and pediatric patients 8 years of age and older weighing 45 kg and above.

2.11 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

3.1 Important Administration Instructions

• The usual dosage and frequency of administration of doxycycline (ACTICLATE) differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of adverse reactions.

• Administer doxycycline with adequate amounts of fluid to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

• If gastric irritation occurs, doxycycline may be given with food or milk [see Clinical Pharmacology]

• Swallow doxycycline capsules whole. Do not break, open, crush, dissolve or chew the capsule.

• Doxycycline tablets (150 mg) can be broken into two-thirds or one-third to provide a 100 mg and 50 mg strength, respectively [see FDA-approved patient labeling].

3.2 Dosage of Doxycycline (ACTICLATE) in Adult Patients

• The usual dosage of doxycycline (ACTICLATE) is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg daily. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours.

• In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.

• For certain selected specific indications, the recommended duration or dosage and duration of doxycycline in adult patients are as follows:

1. Streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days.

2. Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 7 days.

3. Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose.

4. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum: 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 7 days.

5. Syphilis – early: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 2 weeks.

6. Syphilis of more than one year’s duration: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 4 weeks.

7. Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by N. gonorrhoeae: 100 mg by mouth, twice-a-day for at least 10 days.

8. Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by C. trachomatis: 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for at least 10 days.

3.3 Dosage in Pediatric Patients

• For all pediatric patients weighing less than 45 kg with severe or life threatening infections (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), the recommended dosage of doxycycline is 2.2 mg per kg of body weight administered every 12 hours. Pediatric patients weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

• For pediatric patients with less severe disease (greater than 8 years of age and weighing less than 45 kg), the recommended dosage schedule of doxycycline is 4.4 mg per kg of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by a maintenance dose of 2.2 mg per kg of body weight (given as a single daily dose or divided into twice daily doses). For pediatric patients weighing over 45 kg, the usual adult dose should be used.

3.4 Dosage for Prophylaxis of Malaria

For adults, the recommended dose of doxycycline is 100 mg daily.

For pediatric patients 8 years of age and older, the recommended dosage of doxycycline is 2 mg per kg of body weight administered once daily. Pediatric patients weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.

Prophylaxis should begin 1 or 2 days before travel to the malarious area. Prophylaxis should be continued daily during travel in the malarious area and for 4 weeks after the traveler leaves the malarious area.

3.5 Dosage for Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

For adults, the recommended dosage is 100 mg, of doxycycline, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days.

For pediatric patients weighing less than 45 kg, the recommended dosage of doxycycline is 2.2 mg per kg of body weight, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days. Pediatric patients weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.

3.6 Dosage of LYMEPAK

Adults and Pediatric Patients 8 years of age and older weighing 45 kg and above

Administer LYMEPAK (100 mg) tablet every 12 hours for 21 days.

Important Administration Instructions

• The usual dosage and frequency of administration of LYMEPAK differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of adverse reactions.

• Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with the tablets is recommended to wash down the tablet to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

• If gastric irritation occurs, LYMEPAK may be given with food or milk. The absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk.

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Tooth Development

The use of drugs of the tetracycline-class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Doxycycline should not be used in this age group, except for anthrax, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.

5.2 Inhibition of Bone Growth

The use of LYMEPAK during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, infancy and childhood up to the age of 8 years may cause reversible inhibition of bone growth. All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued. Advise the patient of the potential risk to the fetus if LYMEPAK is used during the second or third trimester of pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.4)].

5.3 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including doxycycline, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.4 Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

5.5 Severe Skin Reactions

Severe skin reactions, such as exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in patients receiving doxycycline [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. If severe skin reactions occur, discontinue LYMEPAK immediately and initiate appropriate therapy.

5.6 Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is a self-limiting systemic reaction that has been reported after the initiation of doxycycline therapy in up to 30% of patients with early Lyme disease. The reaction begins one to two hours after initiation of therapy and disappears within 12 to 24 hours. It is characterized by fever, chills, myalgias, headache, exacerbation of cutaneous lesions, tachycardia, hyperventilation, vasodilation with flushing, and mild hypotension. The pathogenesis of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is unknown, but thought to be due to the release of spirochetal heat-stable pyrogen. Advise the patient of this reaction before starting LYMEPAK. Administer fluids and antipyretics to alleviate symptoms and duration of the reaction if severe.

5.7 Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including doxycycline. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

5.8 Antianabolic Action

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

5.9 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing doxycycline in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

5.10 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth

As with other antibacterial drugs, use of LYMEPAK may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If such infections occur, discontinue doxycycline and institute appropriate therapy.

6. ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

• Tooth Discoloration and Enamel Hypoplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

• Inhibition of Bone Growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

• Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

• Photosensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

• Severe Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

• Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

• Intracranial Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]

The following adverse reactions have been observed during clinical trials or post-approval use of tetracycline-class drugs, including LYMEPAK. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Superficial discoloration of the adult permanent dentition, reversible upon drug discontinuation and professional dental cleaning has been reported. Permanent tooth discoloration and enamel hypoplasia may occur with drugs of the tetracycline class when used during tooth development [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed [see Dosage and Administration (3.2)].

Skin: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erytherma multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Renal: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose-related [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction has been reported in patients treated with doxycycline for early Lyme disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.

Intracranial Hypertension: Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) in adults and bulging fontanels in infants has been associated with the use of tetracycline [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Thyroid Gland Changes: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function are known to occur.

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Anticoagulant Drugs

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

7.2 Penicillin

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.

7.3 Antacids and Iron Preparations

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, bismuth subsalicylate, and iron-containing preparations.

7.4 Oral Contraceptives

Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.

7.5 Isotretinoin

There have been reports of intracranial hypertension associated with the concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline. Avoid the concomitant use of isotretinoin and LYMEPAK because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

7.6 Barbiturates and Anti-Epileptics

Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.

7.7 Drug and Laboratory Test Interactions

False elevations of urinary catecholamines may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.

8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

LYMEPAK, like other tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs, may cause discoloration of deciduous teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimester of pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2), Data, Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Available data from published studies over decades have not shown a difference in major birth defect risk compared to unexposed pregnancies with doxycycline exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy (see Data). There are no available data on the risk of miscarriage following exposure to doxycycline in pregnancy.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Human Data

A retrospective cohort study of 1,690 pregnant patients who received doxycycline prescriptions in the first trimester of pregnancy compared to an unexposed pregnant cohort showed no difference in the major malformation rate. There is no information on the dose or duration of treatment, or if the patients actually ingested the doxycycline that was prescribed.

Other published studies on exposure to doxycycline in the first trimester of pregnancy have small sample sizes; however, these studies have not shown an increased risk of major malformations.

The use of tetracyclines during tooth development (second and third trimester of pregnancy) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses.

Animal Data

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity also has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].

8.2 Lactation

Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk, however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated. The effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknown4 . Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, doxycycline should not be used in pediatric patients to the age of 8 years, unless the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks such as for anthrax, or when other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6) and Dosage and Administration (3.1, 3.3)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of doxycycline hyclate tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

Doxycycline (ACTICLATE) tablets, 75 mg contain 0.34 mg (0.0146 mEq) of sodium.

Doxycycline (ACTICLATE) tablets, 150 mg contain 0.68 mg (0.0295 mEq) of sodium.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

The use of tetracyclines has been associated with hepatotoxicity.

8.7 Renal Impairment

Studies have shown no significant difference in the serum half-life of doxycycline [see Clinical Pharmacology]. No dosage adjustment is warranted in patients with renal impairment.

9. OVERDOSAGE

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.

10. MECHANISM OF ACTION

Doxycycline is an antimicrobial drug.

Doxycycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Doxycycline has bacteriostatic activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Cross resistance with other tetracyclines is common.

Doxycycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert for doxycycline [see Indications and Usage (1).

Gram-Negative Bacteria

Acinetobacter species

Bartonella bacilliformis

Brucella species

Campylobacter fetus

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia coli

Francisella tularensis

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella granulomatis

Klebsiella species

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Shigella species

Vibrio cholerae

Yersinia pestis

Gram-Positive Bacteria

Bacillus anthracis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Anaerobic Bacteria

Clostridium species

Fusobacterium fusiforme

Propionibacterium acnes

Other Bacteria

Nocardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces species

Borrelia recurrentis

Chlamydophila psittaci

Chlamydia trachomatis

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Rickettsiae species

Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Parasites

Balantidium coli

Entamoeba species

Plasmodium falciparum*

*Doxycycline has been found to be active against the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum, but not against the gametocytes of P. falciparum. The precise mechanism of action of the drug is not known.

11. PHARMACOKINETICS

Absorption

ACTICLATE (doxycycline hyclate) Tablets:

Following administration of a single 300 mg dose to adult volunteers, average peak plasma doxycycline levels were 3.0 mcg per mL at 3 hours, decreasing to 1.18 mcg per mL at 24 hours. The mean Cmax and AUC0-∞ of doxycycline are 24% and 15% lower, respectively, following single dose administration of doxycycline, 150 mg tablets with a high fat meal (including milk) compared to fasted conditions. The clinical significance of these decreases is unknown.

ACTICLATE CAP (doxycycline hyclate) Capsules:

Following administration of a single 300 mg dose to adult volunteers, average peak plasma doxycycline levels were 2.8 mcg per mL at 3 hours, decreasing to 1.1 mcg per mL at 24 hours. The mean Cmax of doxycycline is approximately 20% lower and the AUC0-∞ is unchanged following single dose administration of doxycycline CAP Capsules with a high fat meal (including milk) compared to fasted conditions. The clinical significance of this decrease in Cmax is unknown.

Excretion

Tetracyclines are concentrated in bile by the liver and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form.

Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40% per 72 hours in individuals with a creatinine clearance of about 75 mL per minute. This percentage may fall as low as 1% per 72 hours to 5% per 72 hours in individuals with a creatinine clearance below 10 mL per minute. Studies have shown no significant difference in the serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18 to 22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function. Hemodialysis does not alter the serum half-life.

12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

How Supplied:

ACTICLATE (doxycycline hyclate) Tablets, 75 mg are round, convex, light-teal, film-coated, tablets with “75” debossed on one side of the tablet and “AQ101” debossed on the other. Each 75 mg tablet contains 86.6 mg of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 75 mg of doxycycline. Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 16110-501-01

ACTICLATE (doxycycline hyclate) Tablets, 150 mg are oval-shaped, convex, mossy-green, film-coated tablets. Each side of the functionally scored tablet has two parallel score lines for splitting into 3 equal portions with “A” debossed on each portion of one side of the tablet, and no debossing on the other. Each 150 mg tablet contains 173.2 mg of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 150 mg of doxycycline. Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 16110-502-01

ACTICLATE CAP (doxycycline hyclate) Capsules, 75 mg, have a navy blue opaque body and cap with the inscription “AQUA 101C75” in black. Each 75 mg capsule contains 86.6 mg of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 75 mg of doxycycline. Bottles of 60 capsules: NDC 16110-601-01

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Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules (equivalent to 50 mg Doxycycline) (by Watson Laboratories) are opaque blue and opaque white capsules imprinted DAN 5535 supplied in bottles of 50.

Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules (equivalent to 100 mg Doxycycline) are opaque blue capsules imprinted DAN 5440 supplied in bottles of 50 and 500.

Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets (equivalent to 100 mg Doxycycline) are round, film-coated, light orange tablets imprinted DAN and 5553 supplied in bottles of 50 and 500.

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LYMEPAK tablets contain 100 mg of doxycycline (equivalent to 115 mg doxycycline hyclate). The tablets are green, round, film-coated tablets engraved with LP-1 on one side.

• NDC # 62135-596-01: is supplied as a child-resistant blister card containing 14 tablets

• NDC # 62135-596-87: carton containing 3 blister cards

Storage:

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

Rx only

Rev 06/18