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Ipratropium Bromide 0.5 mg and Albuterol Sulfate 3.0 mg* Inhalation Solution

* Equivalent to 2.5 mg albuterol base

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION 7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 8. ADVERSE REACTIONS
3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 9. OVERDOSAGE
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS 10. DRUG INTERACTIONS
5. MECHANISM OF ACTION 11. PHARMACOKINETICS
6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

1. DESCRIPTION

Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator, a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound chemically related to atropine. Albuterol sulfate is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator. Albuterol is the official generic name in the United States. The World Health Organization recommended name for the drug is salbutamol.

Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator chemically described as 8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-, bromide, monohydrate (endo,syn)-,(±): a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound chemically related to atropine. The structural formula is:

Albuterol sulfate, chemically known as (1,3-benzenedimethanol, α'-[[(1,1dimethylethyl) amino] methyl]-4-hydroxy, sulfate (2:1)(salt), (±)- has the following structural formula:

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is a clear, colorless solution. It does not require dilution prior to administration by nebulization. For Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like all other nebulized treatments, the amount delivered to the lungs will depend on patient factors, the jet nebulizer utilized, and compressor performance. Using the Pari-LC-Plus™ nebulizer (with face mask or mouthpiece) connected to a PRONEB™ compressor system, under in vitro conditions, the mean delivered dose from the mouth piece (% nominal dose) was approximately 46% of albuterol and 42% of ipratropium bromide at a mean flow rate of 3.6 L/min. The mean nebulization time was 15 minutes or less. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be administered from jet nebulizers at adequate flow rates, via face masks or mouthpieces (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Each 3 mL vial of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution contains 3.0 mg (0.1%) of albuterol sulfate (equivalent to 2.5 mg (0.083%) of albuterol base) and 0.5 mg (0.017%) of ipratropium bromide in an isotonic, sterile, aqueous solution containing sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid to adjust to pH 4, and edetate disodium, USP (a chelating agent).

2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate InhalationSolution is indicated for the treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD in patients requiring more than one bronchodilator.

3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended dose of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is one 3 mL vial administered 4 times per day via nebulization with up to 2 additional 3 mL doses allowed per day, if needed. Safety and efficacy of additional doses or increased frequency of administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution beyond these guidelines has not been studied and the safety and efficacy of extra doses of albuterol sulfate or ipratropium bromide in addition to the recommended doses of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution have not been studied.

The use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution can be continued as medically indicated to control recurring bouts of bronchospasm. If a previously effective regimen fails to provide the usual relief, medical advice should be sought immediately, as this is often a sign of worsening COPD, which would require reassessment of therapy.

A Pari-LC-Plus™ nebulizer (with face mask or mouthpiece) connected to a PRONEB™ compressor was used to deliver Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution to each patient in one U.S. clinical study. The safety and efficacy of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution delivered by other nebulizers and compressors have not been established.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be administered via jet nebulizer connected to an air compressor with an adequate air flow, equipped with a mouthpiece or suitable face mask.

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to any other components of the drug product or to atropine or its derivatives.

5. MECHANISM OF ACTION

Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent which, based on animal studies, appears to inhibit vagally mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released from the vagus nerve. Anticholinergics prevent the increases in intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) which are caused by interaction of acetylcholine with the muscarinic receptor on bronchial smooth muscle.

In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors on bronchial smooth muscle, recent data indicate that there is a population of beta2-receptors in the human heart which comprise between 10% and 50% of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors, however, is not yet established.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is expected to maximize the response to treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by reducing bronchospasm through two distinctly different mechanisms, anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) and sympathomimetic. Simultaneous administration of both an anticholinergic (ipratropium bromide) and a beta2-sympathomimetic (albuterol sulfate) is designed to benefit the patient by producing a greater bronchodilator effect than when either drug is utilized alone at its recommended dosage.

6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

6.1 Usage in Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Ipratropium bromide:

Reproduction studies in CD-1 mice, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand rabbits demonstrated no evidence of teratogenicity at oral doses up to 10, 100, and 125 mg/kg, respectively (approximately 15, 270, and 680 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis). Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits demonstrated no evidence of teratogenicity at inhalation doses up to 1.5 and 1.8 mg/kg, respectively (approximately 4 and 10 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

Albuterol sulfate:

Albuterol sulfate has been shown to be teratogenic in mice. A study in CD-1 mice given albuterol sulfate subcutaneously showed cleft palate formation in 5 of 111 (4.5%) fetuses at 0.25 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis) and in 10 of 108 (9.3%) fetuses at 2.5 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis). The drug did not induce cleft palate formation when administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis). Cleft palate formation also occurred in 22 of 72 (30.5%) fetuses from females treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg isoproterenol (positive control).

A reproduction study in Stride rabbits revealed cranioschisis in 7 of 19 (37%) fetuses when albuterol was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 55 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

A study in which pregnant rats were dosed with radiolabeled albuterol sulfate demonstrated that drug-related material is transferred from the maternal circulation to the fetus.

During worldwide marketing experience, various congenital anomalies, including cleft palate and limb defects, have been reported in the offspring of patients being treated with albuterol. Some of the mothers were taking multiple medications during their pregnancies. Because no consistent pattern of defects can be discerned, a relationship between albuterol use and congenital anomalies has not been established.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution:

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of the use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, albuterol sulfate, or ipratropium bromide in pregnant women. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

6.2 Labor and Delivery

Oral albuterol sulfate has been shown to delay preterm labor in some reports. Because of the potential of albuterol to interfere with uterine contractility, use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

6.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether the components of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution are excreted in human milk. Although lipid-insoluble quaternary bases pass into breast milk, it is unlikely that ipratropium bromide would reach the infant to an important extent, especially when taken as a nebulized solution. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for albuterol sulfate in some animals, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

6.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population below 18 years of age have not been established.

6.4 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, 62 percent were 65 and over, while 19 percent were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

WARNINGS

1. Paradoxical Bronchospasm: Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution can produce paradoxical bronchospasm that can be life threatening. If it occurs, the preparation should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister.

2. Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose: Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled products containing sympathomimetic amines and with the home use of nebulizers.

3. Cardiovascular Effect: The albuterol sulfate contained in Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution at recommended doses, if they occur, discontinuation of the drug may be indicated. In addition, beta-adrenergic agents have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. Therefore, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension.

4. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of ipratropium bromide or albuterol sulfate, as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis and oropharyngeal edema.

PRECAUTIONS

General

1. Effects Seen with Anticholinergic Drugs: Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution contains ipratropium bromide and, therefore, should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy or bladder-neck obstruction.

2. Effects Seen with Sympathomimetic Drugs: Preparations containing sympathomimetic amines such as albuterol sulfate should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Beta-adrenergic agents may also produce significant hypokalemia in some patients (possibly through intracellular shunting) which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

3. Use in Hepatic or Renal Disease: Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. It should be used with caution in those patient populations.

Information for Patients

The action of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should last up to 5 hours. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should not be used more frequently than recommended. Patients should be instructed not to increase the dose or frequency of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution without consulting their healthcare provider. If symptoms worsen, patients should be instructed to seek medical consultation.

Patients must avoid exposing their eyes to this product as temporary papillary dilation, blurred vision, eye pain, or precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma may occur, and therefore proper nebulizer technique should be assured, particularly if a mask is used.

If a patient becomes pregnant or begins nursing while on Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, they should contact their healthcare provider about use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution.

8. ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction information concerning Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was derived from the 12-week controlled clinical trial.

Table 1: ADVERSE EVENTS OCCURRING IN ≥ 1% OF ≥ 1 TREATMENT GROUP(S) AND WHERE THE COMBINATION TREATMENT SHOWED THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE

Additional adverse reactions reported in more than 1% of patients treated with Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution included constipation and voice alterations.

In the clinical trial, there was a 0.3% incidence of possible allergic-type reactions, including skin rash, pruritus, and urticaria.

Additional information derived from the published literature on the use of albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide singly or in combination includes precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, acute eye pain, blurred vision, paradoxical bronchospasm, wheezing, exacerbation of COPD symptoms, drowsiness, aching, flushing, upper respiratory tract infection, palpitations, taste perversion, elevated heart rate, sinusitis, back pain, sore throat, and metabolic acidosis. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

9. OVERDOSAGE

The effects of overdosage with Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution are expected to be related primarily to albuterol sulfate, since ipratropium bromide is not well-absorbed systemically after oral or aerosol administration. The expected symptoms with overdosage are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of symptoms such as seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats per minute, arrhythmia, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, and exaggeration of pharmacological effects listed in ADVERSE REACTIONS. Hypokalemia may also occur. As with all sympathomimetic aerosol medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with abuse of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution. Treatment consists of discontinuation of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution together with appropriate symptomatic therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution.

The oral median lethal dose of albuterol sulfate in mice is greater than 2000 mg/kg (approximately 540 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution on a mg/m2 basis). The subcutaneous median lethal dose of albuterol sulfate in mature rats and small young rats is approximately 450 and 2000 mg/kg respectively (approximately 240 and 1100 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). The inhalation median lethal dose has not been determined in animals. The oral median lethal dose of ipratropium bromide in mice, rats and dogs is greater than 1000 mg/kg, approximately 1700 mg/kg and approximately 400 mg/kg, respectively (approximately 1400, 4600, and 3600 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis, respectively).

10. DRUG INTERACTIONS

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution has been used concomitantly with other drugs, including sympathomimetic bronchodilators, methylxanthines and steroids, commonly used in the treatment of COPD, without adverse drug reactions. No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution and these or other medications commonly used in the treatment of COPD.

Anticholinergic agents: Although ipratropium bromide is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation, there is some potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Caution is therefore advised in the co-administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution with other anticholinergic-containing drugs.

Beta-adrenergic agents: Caution is advised in the co-administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution and other sympathomimetic agents due to the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects.

Beta-receptor blocking agents and albuterol inhibit the effect of each other. Beta-receptor blocking agents should be used with caution in patients with hyperreactive airways.

Diuretics: The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia which may result from the administration of non-potassium sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the co-administration of betaagonist-containing drugs, such as Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, with non-potassium sparing diuretics.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants: Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants or within two weeks of discontinuation of such agents because the action of albuterol on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.

11. PHARMACOKINETICS

Ipratropium Bromide:

The bronchodilation following inhalation of ipratropium bromide is primarily a local, site-specific effect, not a systemic one. Much of an administered dose is swallowed as shown by fecal excretion studies. Ipratropium bromide is a quaternary amine. It is not readily absorbed into the systemic circulation either from the surface of the lung or from the gastrointestinal tract as confirmed by blood level and renal excretion studies. Plasma levels of ipratropium bromide were below the assay sensitivity limit of 100 pg/mL.

The half-life of elimination is about 2 hours after inhalation or intravenous administration. Ipratropium bromide is minimally bound (0 to 9% in vitro) to plasma albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. It is partially metabolized to inactive ester hydrolysis products. Following intravenous administration, approximately one-half of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Studies in rats have shown that ipratropium bromide does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

The pharmacokinetics of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution or ipratropium bromide have not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency or in the elderly (see PRECAUTIONS).

Albuterol Sulfate:

Albuterol is longer acting than isoproterenol in most patients because it is not a substrate for the cellular uptake processes for catecholamines nor for metabolism by catechol-0-methyl transferase. Instead, the drug is conjugatively metabolized to albuterol 4’-0-sulfate.

In a pharmacokinetic study in 12 healthy male volunteers of two inhalations of albuterol sulfate, 103 mcg dose/inhalation through the mouthpiece, peak plasma albuterol concentrations ranging from 419 to 802 pg/mL (mean 599 ± 122 pg/mL) were obtained within three hours post-administration. Following this single-dose administration, 30.8 ± 10.2% of the estimated mouthpiece dose was excreted unchanged in the 24 hour urine. Since albuterol sulfate is rapidly and completely absorbed, this study could not distinguish between pulmonary and gastrointestinal absorption.

Intravenous pharmacokinetics of albuterol were studied in a comparable group of 16 healthy male volunteers; the mean terminal half-life following a 30-minute infusion of 1.5 mg was 3.9 hours with a mean clearance of 439 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol:

In a double blind, double period, crossover study, 15 male and female subjects were administered single doses of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution or albuterol sulfate inhalation solution at two times the recommended single doses as two inhalations separated by 15 minutes. The total nebulized dose of albuterol sulfate from both treatments was 6.0 mg and the total dose of ipratropium bromide from Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was 1.0 mg. Peak albuterol plasma concentrations occurred at 0.8 hours after dosing for both treatments. The mean peak albuterol concentration following administration of albuterol sulfate alone was 4.86 (± 2.65) mg/mL and it was 4.65 (± 2.92) mg/mL for Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution. Mean AUC values for the two treatments were 26.6 (± 15.2) ng·hr/mL (albuterol sulfate alone) versus 24.2 (± 14.5) ng·hr/mL (Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution). The mean t1/2 values were 7.2 (± 1.3) hours (albuterol sulfate alone) and 6.7 (± 1.7) hours (Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution). A mean of 8.4 (± 8.9)% of the albuterol dose was excreted unchanged in urine following administration of two vials of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution which is similar to 8.8 (± 7.3)% that was obtained from albuterol sulfate inhalation solution. There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of albuterol between the two treatments. For ipratropium, a mean of 3.9 (± 5.1)% of the ipratropium bromide dose was excreted unchanged in urine following two vials of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, which is comparable with previously reported data.

12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

1) How Available:

a) Brand name: DUONEB, by DEY.

b) Generic drugs: Ipratropium Bromide; Albuterol Sulfate, by various manufacturers.

2) How Supplied:

Ipratropium Bromide 0.5 mg and Albuterol Sulfate 3.0 mg (by SANDOZ) is supplied as a 3-mL sterile solution for nebulization in sterile low-density polyethylene unit-dose vials. Store in pouch until time of use. Supplied in cartons as listed below.

NDC 0185-7322-30 30 vials per carton/5 vials per foil pouch

NDC 0185-7322-60 60 vials per carton/5 vials per foil pouch

NDC 0185-7322-13 30 vials per carton/1 vial per foil pouch

3) Storage:

Store between 2°C and 25°C (36°F to 77°F).

Protect from light.

Rx only

Rev 05/12