Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Capsule, Tablet
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Lansoprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, 2-[[[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl] methyl] sulfinyl] benzimidazole, inhibits gastric acid secretion.
Its empirical formula is C16H14F3N3O2S with a molecular weight of 369.37. Lansoprazole has the following structure:
Lansoprazole is a white to brownish-white odorless crystalline powder which melts with decomposition at approximately 166°C. Lansoprazole is freely soluble in dimethylformamide; soluble in methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile; very slightly soluble in ether; and practically insoluble in hexane and water.
Lansoprazole is stable when exposed to light for up to two months. The rate of degradation of the compound in aqueous solution increases with decreasing pH. The degradation half-life of the drug substance in aqueous solution at 25°C is approximately 0.5 hour at pH 5.0 and approximately 18 hours at pH 7.0.
Lansoprazole is supplied in delayed-release capsules, in delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets for oral administration and in a packet for delayed-release oral suspension.
The delayed-release capsules are available in two dosage strengths: 15 mg and 30 mg of lansoprazole per capsule. Each delayed-release capsule contains enteric-coated granules consisting of 15 mg or 30 mg of lansoprazole (active ingredient) and the following inactive ingredients: sugar sphere, sucrose, methacrylic acid copolymer, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, starch, magnesium carbonate, talc, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80, hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Green No. 3*, and FD&C Red No. 40.
Lansoprazole SoluTab Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets are available in two dosage strengths: 15 mg and 30 mg of lansoprazole per tablet. Each delayed-release orally disintegrating tablet contains enteric-coated microgranules consisting of 15 mg or 30 mg of lansoprazole (active ingredient) and the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, methacrylic acid, hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose monohydrate -microcrystalline cellulose sphere, triethyl citrate, crospovidone, polyacrylate, magnesium carbonate, aspartame**, glyceryl monostearate, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, citric acid, titanium dioxide, talc, artificial strawberry flavor, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 and ferric oxide.
* Lansoprazole 15-mg capsules only.
** Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine 2.5 mg per 15 mg Tablet and 5.1 mg per 30 mg Tablet.
|2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE|
Lansoprazole is indicated for:
2.1 Short-Term Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer
Lansoprazole is indicated for short-term treatment (for 4 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of active duodenal ulcer.
2.2 H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence
Triple Therapy: Lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin
Lansoprazole in combination with amoxicillin plus clarithromycin as triple therapy is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or one-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Dual Therapy: Lansoprazole/amoxicillin
Lansoprazole in combination with amoxicillin as dual therapy is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or one-year history of a duodenal ulcer) who are either allergic or intolerant to clarithromycin or in whom resistance to clarithromycin is known or suspected (see the clarithromycin package insert, MICROBIOLOGY section). Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
2.3 Maintenance of Healed Duodenal Ulcers
Lansoprazole is indicated to maintain healing of duodenal ulcers. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months.
2.4 Short-Term Treatment of Active Benign Gastric Ulcer
Lansoprazole is indicated for short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of active benign gastric ulcer.
2.5 Healing of NSAID-Associated Gastric Ulcer
Lansoprazole is indicated for the treatment of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer in patients who continue NSAID use. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 8 weeks.
2.6 Risk Reduction of NSAID-Associated Gastric Ulcer
Lansoprazole is indicated for reducing the risk of NSAID-associated gastric ulcers in patients with a history of a documented gastric ulcer who require the use of an NSAID. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 weeks.
2.7 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Short-Term Treatment of Symptomatic GERD
Lansoprazole is indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD.
Short-Term Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis
Lansoprazole is indicated for short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of all grades of erosive esophagitis.
For patients who do not heal with lansoprazole for 8 weeks (5-10%), it may be helpful to give an additional 8 weeks of treatment.
If there is a recurrence of erosive esophagitis an additional 8-week course of lansoprazole may be considered.
2.8 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis
Lansoprazole is indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 months.
2.9 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Lansoprazole is indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
|3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION|
Lansoprazole is available as a capsule and an orally disintegrating tablet, and is available in 15 mg and 30 mg strengths. Directions for use specific to the route and available methods of administration for each of these dosage forms is presented below. Lansoprazole should be taken before eating. Lansoprazole products SHOULD NOT BE CRUSHED OR CHEWED. In the clinical trials, antacids were used concomitantly with lansoprazole.
3.1 Recommended Dose
Table 1. Recommended Doses of Lansoprazole
* Please refer to amoxicillin and clarithromycin full prescribing information for CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS, and for information regarding dosing in elderly and renally-impaired patients.
† Controlled studies did not extend beyond indicated duration.
‡ For patients who do not heal with lansoprazole for 8 weeks (5 to 10%), it may be helpful to give an additional 8 weeks of treatment. If there is a recurrence of erosive esophagitis, an additional 8 week course of lansoprazole may be considered.
§ The lansoprazole dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in some pediatric patients after 2 or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. For pediatric patients unable to swallow an intact capsule please see Administration Options.
¶ Varies with individual patient. Recommended adult starting dose is 60 mg once daily. Doses should be adjusted to individual patient needs and should continue for as long as clinically indicated. Dosages up to 90 mg twice daily have been administered. Daily dose of greater than 120 mg should be administered in divided doses. Some patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome have been treated continuously with lansoprazole for more than 4 years.
Patients should be instructed that if a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as possible. However, if the next scheduled dose is due, the patient should not take the missed dose, and should be instructed to take the next dose on time. Patients should be instructed not to take 2 doses at one time to make up for a missed dose.
3.2 Special Populations
Renal impairment patients and geriatric patients do not require dosage adjustment. However, consider dose adjustment in patients with severe liver impairment [see Use in Specific Populations].
3.3 Important Administration Information
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Capsules - Oral Administration
• Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules should be swallowed whole.
• Alternatively, for patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, lansoprazole delayed-release capsules can be opened and administered as follows:
• Open capsule.
• Sprinkle intact granules on one tablespoon of either applesauce, ENSURE pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt or strained pears.
• Swallow immediately.
• Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules may also be emptied into a small volume of either apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice and administered as follows:
• Open capsule.
• Sprinkle intact granules into a small volume of either apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice (60 mL – approximately 2 ounces).
• Mix briefly.
• Swallow immediately.
• To ensure complete delivery of the dose, the glass should be rinsed with two or more volumes of juice and the contents swallowed immediately.
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Capsules - Nasogastric Tube (≥16 French) Administration
• For patients who have a nasogastric tube in place, lansoprazole delayed-release capsules can be administered as follows:
• Open capsule.
• Mix intact granules into 40 mL of apple juice. DO NOT USE OTHER LIQUIDS.
• Inject through the nasogastric tube into the stomach.
• Flush with additional apple juice to clear the tube.
USE IN OTHER FOODS AND LIQUIDS HAS NOT BEEN STUDIED CLINICALLY AND IS THEREFORE NOT RECOMMENDED.
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets
• Lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets should not be broken or cut.
• Lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets should not be chewed.
• Place the tablet on the tongue and allow it to disintegrate, with or without water, until the particles can be swallowed.
• The tablet typically disintegrates in less than 1 minute.
• Alternatively, for children or other patients who have difficulty swallowing tablets, lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets can be delivered in two different ways.
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets – Oral Syringe
• For administration via oral syringe, lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets can be administered as follows:
• Place a 15 mg tablet in oral syringe and draw up 4 mL of water, or place a 30 mg tablet in oral syringe and draw up 10 mL of water.
• Shake gently to allow for a quick dispersal.
• After the tablet has dispersed, administer the contents within 15 minutes.
• Refill the syringe with approximately 2 mL (5 mL for the 30 mg tablet) of water, shake gently, and administer any remaining contents.
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets – Nasogastric Tube (≥ 8 French) Administration
• For administration via a nasogastric tube, lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets can be administered as follows:
• Place a 15 mg tablet in a syringe and draw up 4 mL of water, or place a 30 mg tablet in a syringe and draw up 10 mL of water.
• Shake gently to allow for a quick dispersal.
• After the tablet has dispersed, inject through the nasogastric tube into the stomach within 15 minutes.
• Refill the syringe with approximately 5 mL of water, shake gently, and flush the nasogastric tube.
Lansoprazole is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation of lansoprazole.
For information on contraindications for amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their full prescribing information, CONTRAINDICATIONS sections.
|5. MECHANISM OF ACTION|
Lansoprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the (H+,K+)-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the parietal cell, lansoprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus. Lansoprazole does not exhibit anticholinergic or histamine type-2 antagonist activity.
|6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS|
6.1 Usage in Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 40 times the recommended human dose and in pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 16 times the recommended human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
See full prescribing information for clarithromycin before using in pregnant women.
6.2 Nursing Mothers
Lansoprazole or its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known whether lansoprazole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from lansoprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lansoprazole, taking into account the importance of lansoprazole to the mother.
6.3 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, however, lansoprazole was not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD 1 month to less than 1 year of age in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
Neonate to less than 1 year of age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and 1 to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04- and 1.88-fold higher at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged £ 10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose.
Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a U.S. and Polish 4 week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., nonpharmacologic intervention) for 7 to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤ 10 weeks of age or 1 to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment.
The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding.
There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups).
There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (1 month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults.
Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants.
One to 11 years of age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (1 to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either lansoprazole 15 mg daily if ≤30 kg or lansoprazole 30 mg daily if greater than 30 kg administered for 8 to 12 weeks. The lansoprazole dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after 2 or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy).
After 8 to 12 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms.
Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at 8 weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy.
In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group 1 year to 11 years old after treatment with lansoprazole given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from 51 pg/mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 71 to 130 pg/mL] at the final visit.
The pediatric safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged 1 to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD 85% (56/66) took lansoprazole for 8 weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks.
The most frequently reported (2 or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients 1 to 11 years of age (N=66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%).
Twelve to 17 years of age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 87 adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age) with symptomatic GERD were treated with lansoprazole for 8 to 12 weeks. Baseline upper endoscopies classified these patients into two groups: 64 (74%) nonerosive GERD and 23 (26%) erosive esophagitis (EE). The nonerosive GERD patients received lansoprazole 15 mg daily for 8 weeks and the EE patients received lansoprazole 30 mg daily for 8 to 12 weeks. At baseline, 89% of these patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interviews). During 8 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, adolescent patients experienced a 63% reduction in frequency and a 69% reduction in severity of GERD symptoms based on diary results.
Twenty-one of 22 (95.5%) adolescent erosive esophagitis patients were healed after 8 weeks of lansoprazole treatment. One patient remained unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment.
In these 87 adolescent patients, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 42% from 45 pg/mL at baseline to 64 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 44 to 88 pg/mL] at the final visit. (Normal serum gastrin levels are 25 to 111 pg/mL.)
The safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in these 87 adolescent patients. Of the 87 adolescent patients with GERD, 6% (5/87) took lansoprazole for less than 6 weeks, 93% (81/87) for 6 to 10 weeks, and 1% (1/87) for greater than 10 weeks.
The most frequently reported (at least 3%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (3%) and dizziness (3%). Treatment-related dizziness, reported in this package insert as occurring in less than 1% of adult patients, was reported in this study by 3 adolescent patients with nonerosive GERD, who had dizziness concurrently with other reactions (such as migraine, dyspnea, and vomiting).
6.4 Geriatric Use
The incidence rates of lansoprazole-associated adverse events and laboratory test abnormalities are similar to those seen in younger patients. For geriatric patients, dosage and administration of lansoprazole need not be altered.
6.5 Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment of lansoprazole is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were not substantially different compared to those in subjects with normal renal function.
6.6 Hepatic Impairment
In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state compared to healthy subjects. Consider dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Over 4,000 women were treated with lansoprazole. Ulcer healing rates in females were similar to those in males. The incidence rates of adverse reactions in females were similar to those seen in males.
The pooled mean pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole from twelve U.S. Phase 1 studies (N=513) were compared to the mean pharmacokinetic parameters from two Asian studies (N=20). The mean AUCs of lansoprazole in Asian subjects were approximately twice those seen in pooled U.S. data; however, the inter-individual variability was high. The Cmax values were comparable.
|7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS|
7.1 Gastric Malignancy
Symptomatic response to therapy with lansoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
7.2 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea
Published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy like PREVACID may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with PREVACID, refer to WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts.
7.3 Bone Fracture
Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration and Adverse Reactions].
For information on warnings and precautions for amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their full prescribing information, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions].
7.5 Concomitant Use of Lansoprazole with Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions].
|8. ADVERSE REACTIONS|
8.1 Clinical Experience
Worldwide, over 10,000 patients have been treated with lansoprazole in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials involving various dosages and durations of treatment. In general, lansoprazole treatment has been well-tolerated in both short-term and long-term trials.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The following adverse reactions were reported by the treating physician to have a possible or probable relationship to drug in 1% or more of lansoprazole-treated patients and occurred at a greater rate in lansoprazole-treated patients than placebo-treated patients in Table 2.
Table 2: Incidence of Possibly or Probably Treatment-Related Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Lansoprazole Studies
Headache was also seen at greater than 1% incidence but was more common on placebo. The incidence of diarrhea was similar between patients who received placebo and patients who received 15 mg and 30 mg of lansoprazole, but higher in the patients who received 60 mg of lansoprazole (2.9%, 1.4%, 4.2%, and 7.4%, respectively).
The most commonly reported possibly or probably treatment-related adverse event during maintenance therapy was diarrhea. In the risk reduction study of lansoprazole for NSAID-associated gastric ulcers, the incidence of diarrhea for patients treated with lansoprazole, misoprostol, and placebo was 5%, 22%, and 3%, respectively.
Another study for the same indication, where patients took either a COX-2 inhibitor or lansoprazole and naproxen, demonstrated that the safety profile was similar to the prior study. Additional reactions from this study not previously observed in other clinical trials with lansoprazole included contusion, duodenitis, epigastric discomfort, esophageal disorder, fatigue, hunger, hiatal hernia, hoarseness, impaired gastric emptying, metaplasia, and renal impairment.
8.2 Postmarketing Experience
Additional adverse experiences have been reported since lansoprazole delayed-release capsules and lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets have been marketed. The majority of these cases are foreign-sourced and a relationship to lansoprazole delayed-release capsules and lansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets have not been established. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events are listed below by COSTART body system.
Body as a Whole – anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions;
Digestive System - hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, vomiting;
Hemic and Lymphatic System - agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura;
Musculoskeletal System – bone fracture, myositis;
Skin and Appendages – severe dermatologic reactions including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal);
Special Senses - speech disorder;
Urogenital System – interstitial nephritis, urinary retention.
8.3 Combination Therapy with Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin
In clinical trials using combination therapy with lansoprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and lansoprazole plus amoxicillin, no adverse reactions peculiar to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions that have occurred have been limited to those that had been previously reported with lansoprazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin.
Triple Therapy: Lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin
The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received triple therapy for 14 days were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of reported adverse reactions between the 10- and 14-day triple therapy regimens. No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with triple therapy than with any dual therapy regimen.
Dual Therapy: Lansoprazole/amoxicillin
The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy than with lansoprazole alone.
For information on adverse reactions with amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their full prescribing information, ADVERSE REACTIONS sections.
8.4 Laboratory Values
The following changes in laboratory parameters in patients who received lansoprazole were reported as adverse reactions:
Abnormal liver function tests, increased SGOT (AST), increased SGPT (ALT), increased creatinine, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased globulins, increased GGTP, increased/decreased/abnormal WBC, abnormal AG ratio, abnormal RBC, bilirubinemia, blood potassium increased, blood urea increased, crystal urine present, eosinophilia, hemoglobin decreased, hyperlipemia, increased/ decreased electrolytes, increased/decreased cholesterol, increased glucocorticoids, increased LDH, increased/decreased/abnormal platelets, increased gastrin levels and positive fecal occult blood. Urine abnormalities such as albuminuria, glycosuria, and hematuria were also reported. Additional isolated laboratory abnormalities were reported.
In the placebo controlled studies, when SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT) were evaluated, 0.4% (4/978) and 0.4% (11/2677) patients, who received placebo and lansoprazole, respectively, had enzyme elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal range at the final treatment visit. None of these patients who received lansoprazole reported jaundice at any time during the study.
Lansoprazole is not removed from the circulation by hemodialysis. In one reported overdose, a patient consumed 600 mg of lansoprazole with no adverse reaction.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS|
Drugs with pH-Dependent Absorption Kinetics
Lansoprazole causes long-lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Lansoprazole and other PPIs are likely to substantially decrease the systemic concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir, which is dependent upon the presence of gastric acid for absorption, and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect of atazanavir and the development of HIV resistance. Therefore, lansoprazole and other PPIs should not be co-administered with atazanavir.
It is theoretically possible that lansoprazole and other PPIs may interfere with the absorption of other drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of oral bioavailability (e.g., ampicillin esters, digoxin, iron salts, ketoconazole)
In a study of healthy subjects neither the pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers nor prothrombin time were affected following single or multiple 60 mg doses of lansoprazole. However, there have been reports of increased International Normalized Ratio (INR) and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including lansoprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.
A minor increase (10%) in the clearance of theophylline was observed following the administration of lansoprazole concomitantly with theophylline. Although the magnitude of the effect on theophylline clearance is small, individual patients may require additional titration of their theophylline dosage when lansoprazole is started or stopped to ensure clinically effective blood levels.
For information on drug interactions for amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their full prescribing information, DRUG INTERACTIONS sections.
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and Lansoprazole SoluTab Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets contain an enteric-coated granule formulation of lansoprazole. Absorption of lansoprazole begins only after the granules leave the stomach. Absorption is rapid, with mean peak plasma levels of lansoprazole occurring after approximately 1.7 hours. After a single-dose administration of 15 mg to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of lansoprazole and the area under the plasma concentration curves (AUCs) of lansoprazole were approximately proportional to the administered dose. Lansoprazole does not accumulate and its pharmacokinetics are unaltered by multiple dosing.
The absorption of lansoprazole is rapid, with the mean Cmax occurring approximately 1.7 hours after oral dosing, and the absolute bioavailability is over 80%. In healthy subjects, the mean (±SD) plasma half-life was 1.5 (±1.0) hours. Both the Cmax and AUC are diminished by about 50% to 70% if lansoprazole is given 30 minutes after food, compared to the fasting condition. There is no significant food effect if lansoprazole is given before meals.
Lansoprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 0.05 to 5.0 μg/mL.
Lansoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver. Two metabolites have been identified in measurable quantities in plasma (the hydroxylated sulfinyl and sulfone derivatives of lansoprazole). These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity. Lansoprazole is thought to be transformed into two active species which inhibit acid secretion by blocking the proton pump [(H+,K+)-ATPase enzyme system] at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. The two active species are not present in the systemic circulation. The plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole is less than 2 hours while the acid inhibitory effect lasts more than 24 hours. Therefore, the plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole does not reflect its duration of suppression of gastric acid secretion.
Following single-dose oral administration of lansoprazole, virtually no unchanged lansoprazole was excreted in the urine. In one study, after a single oral dose of 14C-lansoprazole, approximately one-third of the administered radiation was excreted in the urine and two-thirds was recovered in the feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the lansoprazole metabolites.
The clearance of lansoprazole is decreased in the elderly, with elimination half-life increased approximately 50% to 100%. Because the mean half-life in the elderly remains between 1.9 to 2.9 hours, repeated once daily dosing does not result in accumulation of lansoprazole. Peak plasma levels were not increased in the elderly. No dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly.
Overall, lansoprazole pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years were similar to those observed in healthy adult subjects.
No gender differences were found in pharmacokinetics and intragastric pH results. (Also see Use in Women).
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal insufficiency.
In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic disease, the mean plasma half-life of lansoprazole was prolonged from 1.5 hours to 3.2-7.2 hours. An increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state in hepatically-impaired patients compared to healthy subjects. Dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic disease should be considered.
|12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING|
1) How Available:
a) Brand name: PREVACID, by TAKEDA PHARMS.
b) Generic drugs: Lansoprazole, by various manufacturers.
2) How Supplied:
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Capsules (by SANDOZ), 15 mg, are opaque, hard gelatin, colored pink and green with "TAP" and "PREVACID 15" imprinted on the capsules.
The 30 mg capsules are opaque, hard gelatin, colored pink and black with "TAP" and "PREVACID 30" imprinted on the capsules. They are available as follows:
Lansoprazole Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets (by SANDOZ), 15 mg, are white to yellowish white uncoated tablets with orange to dark brown speckles, with "15" debossed on one side of the tablet.
The 30 mg are white to yellowish white uncoated tablets with orange to dark brown speckles, with "30" debossed on one side of the tablet. The tablets are available as follows:
3) Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). Protect from light.