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Olanzapine and Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Capsule

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION 7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 8. ADVERSE REACTIONS
3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 9. OVERDOSAGE
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS 10. DRUG INTERACTIONS
5. MECHANISM OF ACTION 11. PHARMACOKINETICS
6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

 


WARNING: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS AND INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS

Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs — Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of olanzapine and fluoxetine or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Olanzapine and fluoxetine is not approved for use in pediatric patients. [See Warnings and Precautions, Use in Specific Populations].

Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis — Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine and fluoxetine HCl is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions].


 

1. DESCRIPTION

Olanzapine and fluoxetine HCl capsules combine an atypical antipsychotic and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The chemical designation is 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b] [1,5]benzodiazepine. The molecular formula is C17H20N4S, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 312.44. The chemical structure is:

Olanzapine is a yellow crystalline solid, which is practically insoluble in water.

Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a psychotropic drug for oral administration. It is also marketed for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It is designated (±)-N-Methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(a,a,a-trifluoro-ptolyl) oxy]propylamine hydrochloride and has the molecular formula of C17H18F3NO•HCl. Its molecular weight is 345.79. The structural formula is:

Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of 14 mg/mL in water.

Olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules are available for oral administration in the following strength combinations:

Each capsule also contains pregelatinized starch, gelatin, dimethicone, titanium dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, edible black ink, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and/or black iron oxide.

2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE

2.1 Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder

Olanzapine and fluoxetine is indicated for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in adults.

2.2 Treatment Resistant Depression

Olanzapine and fluoxetine is indicated for the acute treatment of treatment resistant depression (Major Depressive Disorder in adults who do not respond to 2 separate trials of different antidepressants of adequate dose and duration in the current episode).

3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

3.1 Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder

Olanzapine and fluoxetine should be administered once daily in the evening, generally beginning with the 6-mg/25-mg capsule. While food has no appreciable effect on the absorption of olanzapine and fluoxetine given individually, the effect of food on the absorption of olanzapine and fluoxetine has not been studied. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, can be made according to efficacy and tolerability. Antidepressant efficacy was demonstrated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in a dose range of olanzapine 6 to 12 mg and fluoxetine 25 to 50 mg. The safety of doses above 18 mg per 75 mg has not been evaluated in clinical studies.

While there is no body of evidence to answer the question of how long a patient treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine should remain on it, it is generally accepted that Bipolar I Disorder, including the depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, is a chronic illness requiring chronic treatment. The physician should periodically reexamine the need for continued pharmacotherapy.

3.2 Treatment Resistant Depression

Olanzapine and fluoxetine should be administered once daily in the evening, generally beginning with the 6-mg/25-mg capsule. While food has no appreciable effect on the absorption of olanzapine and fluoxetine given individually, the effect of food on the absorption of olanzapine and fluoxetine has not been studied. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, can be made according to efficacy and tolerability. Antidepressant efficacy was demonstrated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in a dose range of olanzapine 6 to 18 mg and fluoxetine 25 to 50 mg. The safety of doses above 18 mg per 75 mg has not been evaluated in clinical studies.

While there is no body of evidence to answer the question of how long a patient treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine should remain on it, it is generally accepted that treatment resistant depression (Major Depressive Disorder in adult patients who do not respond to 2 separate trials of different antidepressants of adequate dose and duration in the current episode) is a chronic illness requiring chronic treatment. The physician should periodically reexamine the need for continued pharmacotherapy.

3.3 Specific Populations

The starting dose of olanzapine and fluoxetine 3 mg/25 mg to 6 mg/25 mg should be used for patients with a predisposition to hypotensive reactions, patients with hepatic impairment, or patients who exhibit a combination of factors that may slow the metabolism of olanzapine and fluoxetine (female gender, geriatric age, nonsmoking status) or those patients who may be pharmacodynamically sensitive to olanzapine. Dosing modification may be necessary in patients who exhibit a combination of factors that may slow metabolism. When indicated, dose escalation should be performed with caution in these patients. Olanzapine and fluoxetine has not been systematically studied in patients >65 years of age or in patients <18 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions, Use in Specific Populations].

Treatment of Pregnant Women — When treating pregnant women with fluoxetine, a component of olanzapine/fluoxetine, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and potential benefits of treatment. Neonates exposed to SSRIs or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalizations, respiratory support, and tube feeding. [see Use in Specific Populations].

3.4 Switching a Patient To or From a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended to Treat Psychiatric Disorders

At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of therapy with olanzapine/fluoxetine. Conversely, at least 5 weeks should be allowed after stopping olanzapine/fluoxetine before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders [see Contraindications].

3.5 Use of Olanzapine/Fluoxetine with Other MAOIs such as Linezolid or Methylene Blue

Do not start olanzapine/fluoxetine in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue because there is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. In a patient who requires more urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, other interventions, including hospitalization, should be considered [see Contraindications].

In some cases, a patient already receiving olanzapine/fluoxetine therapy may require urgent treatment with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue are judged to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in a particular patient, olanzapine/fluoxetine should be stopped promptly, and linezolid or intravenous methylene blue can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for five weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, whichever comes first. Therapy with olanzapine/fluoxetine may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see Warnings and Precautions].

The risk of administering methylene blue by non-intravenous routes (such as oral tablets or by local injection) or in intravenous doses much lower than 1 mg/kg with olanzapine/fluoxetine is unclear. The clinician should, nevertheless, be aware of the possibility of emergent symptoms of serotonin syndrome with such use [see Warnings and Precautions].

3.6 Discontinuation of Treatment with Olanzapine and Fluoxetine

Symptoms associated with discontinuation of fluoxetine, a component of olanzapine/fluoxetine, SNRIs, and SSRIs, have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions].

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with olanzapine/fluoxetine or within 5 weeks of stopping treatment with olanzapine/fluoxetine is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of olanzapine/fluoxetine within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated. [see Dosage and Administration and Warnings and Precautions].

Starting olanzapine/fluoxetine in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. [see Dosage and Administration and Warnings and Precautions].

4.2 Other Contraindications

The use of olanzapine/fluoxetine is contraindicated with the following:

• Pimozide — [see Drug Interactions]

• Thioridazine — [see Drug Interactions]

5. MECHANISM OF ACTION

Although the exact mechanism of olanzapine and fluoxetine is unknown, it has been proposed that the activation of 3 monoaminergic neural systems (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) is responsible for its enhanced antidepressant effect. In animal studies, ZYPREXA and fluoxetine in combination has been shown to produce synergistic increases in norepinephrine and dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex compared with either component alone, as well as increases in serotonin.

6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

6.1 Usage in Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine

Olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus, taking into account the risk of untreated Bipolar I Depression or Treatment Resistant Depression. [See fluoxetine safety information under Treatment of Pregnant Women during the First Trimester and Clinical Considerations below.]

Teratogenic Effects

Animal Data — Embryo fetal development studies were conducted in rats and rabbits with olanzapine and fluoxetine in low-dose and high-dose combinations. In rats, the doses were: 2 and 4 mg/kg/day (low-dose) [1 and 0.5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis, respectively], and 4 and 8 mg/kg/day (high-dose) [2 and 1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis, respectively]. In rabbits, the doses were 4 and 4 mg/kg/day (low-dose) [4 and 1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis, respectively], and 8 and 8 mg/kg/day (high-dose) [9 and 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis, respectively]. In these studies, olanzapine and fluoxetine were also administered alone at the high-doses (4 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively, in the rat; 8 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively, in the rabbit). In the rabbit, there was no evidence of teratogenicity; however, the high-dose combination produced decreases in fetal weight and retarded skeletal ossification in conjunction with maternal toxicity. Similarly, in the rat there was no evidence of teratogenicity; however, a decrease in fetal weight was observed with the high-dose combination.

In a pre- and postnatal study conducted in rats, olanzapine and fluoxetine were administered during pregnancy and throughout lactation in combination (low-dose: 2 and 4 mg/kg/day [1 and 0.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis], respectively, high-dose: 4 and 8 mg/kg/day [2 and 1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis], respectively, and alone: 4 and 8 mg/kg/day [2 and 1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis], respectively). Administration of the high-dose combination resulted in a marked elevation in offspring mortality and growth retardation in comparison to the same doses of olanzapine and fluoxetine administered alone. These effects were not observed with the low-dose combination; however, there were a few cases of testicular degeneration and atrophy, depletion of epididymal sperm and infertility in the male progeny. The effects of the high-dose combination on postnatal endpoints could not be assessed due to high progeny mortality.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with olanzapine and fluoxetine in pregnant women.

Olanzapine and fluoxetine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Olanzapine

In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (9 and 30 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis, respectively), no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In a rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (9 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). In a rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity (manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight) occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (30 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Placental transfer of olanzapine occurs in rat pups.

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies with olanzapine in pregnant women. Seven pregnancies were observed during premarketing clinical studies with olanzapine, including 2 resulting in normal births, 1 resulting in neonatal death due to a cardiovascular defect, 3 therapeutic abortions, and 1 spontaneous abortion.

Fluoxetine

Treatment of Pregnant Women during the First Trimester — There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies on the use of fluoxetine in pregnant women. Results of a number of published epidemiological studies assessing the risk of fluoxetine exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy have demonstrated inconsistent results. More than 10 cohort studies and case-control studies failed to demonstrate an increased risk for congenital malformations overall. However, one prospective cohort study conducted by the European Network of Teratology Information Services reported an increased risk of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to women (N = 253) exposed to fluoxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy compared to infants of women (N = 1359) who were not exposed to fluoxetine. There was no specific pattern of cardiovascular malformations. Overall, however, a causal relationship has not been established.

Animal Data — In oral embryo fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, there was no evidence of teratogenicity following administration of up to 12.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively (1.5 and 3.6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) throughout organogenesis. However, in rat reproduction studies, an increase in stillborn pups, a decrease in pup weight, and an increase in pup deaths during the first 7 days postpartum occurred following maternal exposure to 12 mg/kg/day (1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) during gestation or 7.5 mg/kg/day (0.9 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) during gestation and lactation. There was no evidence of developmental neurotoxicity in the surviving offspring of rats treated with 12 mg/kg/day during gestation. The no-effect dose for rat pup mortality was 5 mg/kg/day (0.6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis).

Nonteratogenic Effects

Treatment of Pregnant Women During the Third Trimester — Neonates exposed to fluoxetine, a component of olanzapine and fluoxetine, SNRIs, or SSRIs, late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SNRIs and SSRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Dosage and Administration, Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions, and Drug Interactions].

Infants exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1–2 per 1000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective case-control study of 377 women whose infants were born with PPHN and 836 women whose infants were born healthy, the risk for developing PPHN was approximately 6-fold higher for infants exposed to SSRIs after the 20th week of gestation compared to infants who had not been exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy. There is currently no corroborative evidence regarding the risk for PPHN following exposure to SSRIs in pregnancy; this is the first study that has investigated the potential risk. The study did not include enough cases with exposure to individual SSRIs to determine if all SSRIs posed similar levels of PPHN risk.

When treating pregnant women with fluoxetine during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider both the potential risks and benefits of treatment. Physicians should note that in a prospective longitudinal study of 201 women with a history of major depression who were euthymic at the beginning of pregnancy, women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy were more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continued antidepressant medication. The physician may consider tapering fluoxetine in the third trimester.

6.2 Labor and Delivery

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — The effect of olanzapine/fluoxetine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine/fluoxetine. Olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.

Olanzapine — The effect of olanzapine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine.

Fluoxetine — The effect of fluoxetine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Fluoxetine crosses the placenta; therefore, there is a possibility that fluoxetine may be associated with adverse effects on the newborn.

6.3 Nursing Mothers

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Studies evaluating the individual components of olanzapine and fluoxetine in nursing mothers are described below. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from olanzapine/fluoxetine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. It is recommended that women not breast-feed when receiving olanzapine/fluoxetine.

Olanzapine — In a study in lactating, healthy women, olanzapine was excreted in breast milk. Mean infant dose at steady state was estimated to be 1.8% of the maternal olanzapine dose. It is recommended that women receiving olanzapine should not breast-feed.

Fluoxetine — Fluoxetine is excreted in human breast milk. In 1 breast milk sample, the concentration of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine was 70.4 ng/mL. The concentration in the mother’s plasma was 295.0 ng/mL. No adverse effects on the infant were reported. In another case, an infant nursed by a mother on fluoxetine developed crying, sleep disturbance, vomiting, and watery stools. The infant’s plasma drug levels were 340 ng/mL of fluoxetine and 208/mL of norfluoxetine on the 2nd day of feeding.

6.4 Pediatric Use

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Safety and effectiveness in children and adolescent patients have not been established [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions]. Anyone considering the use of olanzapine/fluoxetine in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.

Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination in children and adolescent patients have not been established.

Fluoxetine — Significant toxicity, including myotoxicity, long-term neurobehavioral and reproductive toxicity, and impaired bone development, has been observed following exposure of juvenile animals to fluoxetine. Some of these effects occurred at clinically relevant exposures.

In a study in which fluoxetine (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to young rats from weaning (Postnatal Day 21) through adulthood (Day 90), male and female sexual development was delayed at all doses, and growth (body weight gain, femur length) was decreased during the dosing period in animals receiving the highest dose. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of creatine kinase (marker of muscle damage) were increased at the intermediate and high doses, and abnormal muscle and reproductive organ histopathology (skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis, testicular degeneration and necrosis, epididymal vacuolation and hypospermia) was observed at the high dose. When animals were evaluated after a recovery period (up to 11 weeks after cessation of dosing), neurobehavioral abnormalities (decreased reactivity at all doses and learning deficit at the high dose) and reproductive functional impairment (decreased mating at all doses and impaired fertility at the high dose) were seen; in addition, testicular and epididymal microscopic lesions and decreased sperm concentrations were found in the high dose group, indicating that the reproductive organ effects seen at the end of treatment were irreversible. The reversibility of fluoxetine-induced muscle damage was not assessed. Adverse effects similar to those observed in rats treated with fluoxetine during the juvenile period have not been reported after administration of fluoxetine to adult animals. Plasma exposures (AUC) to fluoxetine in juvenile rats receiving the low, intermediate, and high dose in this study were approximately 0.1-0.2, 1-2, and 5-10 times, respectively, the average exposure in pediatric patients receiving the maximum recommended dose (MRD) of 20 mg/day. Rat exposures to the major metabolite, norfluoxetine, were approximately 0.3-0.8, 1-8, and 3-20 times, respectively, pediatric exposure at the MRD.

A specific effect of fluoxetine on bone development has been reported in mice treated with fluoxetine during the juvenile period. When mice were treated with fluoxetine (5 or 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age, bone formation was reduced resulting in decreased bone mineral content and density. These doses did not affect overall growth (body weight gain or femoral length). The doses administered to juvenile mice in this study are approximately 0.5 and 2 times the MRD for pediatric patients on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.

In another mouse study, administration of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) during early postnatal development (Postnatal Days 4 to 21) produced abnormal emotional behaviors (decreased exploratory behavior in elevated plus-maze, increased shock avoidance latency) in adulthood (12 weeks of age). The dose used in this study is approximately equal to the pediatric MRD on a mg/m2 basis. Because of the early dosing period in this study, the significance of these findings to the approved pediatric use in humans is uncertain.

6.5 Geriatric Use

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Clinical studies of olanzapine/fluoxetine did not include sufficient numbers of patients ≥65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Dosage and Administration].

Olanzapine — Of the 2500 patients in premarketing clinical studies with olanzapine, 11% (263 patients) were ≥65 years of age. In patients with Schizophrenia, there was no indication of any different tolerability of olanzapine in the elderly compared with younger patients. Studies in patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared with younger patients with Schizophrenia. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning, Dosage and Administration, and Warnings and Precautions].

Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient.

Fluoxetine — US fluoxetine clinical studies included 687 patients ≥65 years of age and 93 patients ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. SNRIs and SSRIs, including olanzapine/fluoxetine, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [see Warnings and Precautions].

6.6 Hepatic Impairment

In subjects with cirrhosis of the liver, the clearances of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, were decreased, thus increasing the elimination half-lives of these substances. A lower or less frequent dose of the fluoxetine-component of olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used in patients with cirrhosis. Caution is advised when using olanzapine/fluoxetine in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect its metabolism [see Dosage and Administration].

7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

7.1 Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk

Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.

If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions].

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for olanzapine/fluoxetine should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

It should be noted that olanzapine/fluoxetine is not approved for use in treating any indications in the pediatric population [see Use in Specific Populations].

7.2 Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Increased Mortality — Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Olanzapine/fluoxetine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions].

In olanzapine placebo-controlled clinical trials of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients was significantly greater than placebo-treated patients (3.5% vs 1.5%, respectively).

Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke — Cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients in trials of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine/fluoxetine are not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].

7.3 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.

The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.

If after recovering from NMS, a patient requires treatment with an antipsychotic, the patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions].

7.4 Hyperglycemia

Physicians should consider the risks and benefits when prescribing olanzapine/fluoxetine to patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or having borderline increased blood glucose level (fasting 100-126 mg/dL, nonfasting 140-200 mg/dL). Patients taking olanzapine/fluoxetine should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients starting treatment with olanzapine/fluoxetine should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.

Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, including olanzapine alone, as well as olanzapine taken concomitantly with fluoxetine. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. While relative risk estimates are inconsistent, the association between atypical antipsychotics and increases in glucose levels appears to fall on a continuum and olanzapine appears to have a greater association than some other atypical antipsychotics.

Mean increases in blood glucose have been observed in patients treated (median exposure of 9.2 months) with olanzapine in phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). The mean increase of serum glucose (fasting and nonfasting samples) from baseline to the average of the 2 highest serum concentrations was 15.0 mg/dL.

In a study of healthy volunteers, subjects who received olanzapine (N=22) for 3 weeks had a mean increase compared to baseline in fasting blood glucose of 2.3 mg/dL. Placebo-treated subjects (N=19) had a mean increase in fasting blood glucose compared to baseline of 0.34 mg/dL.

In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine/fluoxetine was associated with a greater mean change in random glucose compared to placebo (8.65 mg/dL vs -3.86 mg/dL). The difference in mean changes between olanzapine/fluoxetine and placebo was greater in patients with evidence of glucose dysregulation at baseline (including those patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or related adverse reactions, patients treated with anti-diabetic agents, patients with a baseline random glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, or a baseline fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL). Olanzapine/fluoxetinetreated patients had a greater mean HbA1c increase from baseline of 0.15% (median exposure 63 days), compared to a mean HbA1c decrease of 0.04% in fluoxetine-treated subjects (median exposure 57 days) and a mean HbA1c increase of 0.12% in olanzapinetreated patients (median exposure 56 days).

In an analysis of 6 controlled clinical studies, a larger proportion of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated subjects had glycosuria (4.4%) compared to placebo-treated subjects (1.4%). The mean change in nonfasting glucose in patients exposed at least 48 weeks was 5.9 mg/dL (N=425).

Controlled fasting glucose data is limited for olanzapine/fluoxetine; however, in an analysis of 5 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (2.76 mg/dL vs 0.17 mg/dL).

The mean change in fasting glucose for olanzapine-treated patients exposed at least 48 weeks was 4.2 mg/dL (N=487). In analyses of patients who completed 9-12 months of olanzapine therapy, mean change in fasting and nonfasting glucose levels continued to increase over time.

Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents — The safety and efficacy of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination have not been established in patients under the age of 18 years. The safety and efficacy of olanzapine have not been established in patients under the age of 13 years. In an analysis of 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies of adolescent patients, including those with Schizophrenia (6 weeks) or Bipolar I Disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (3 weeks), olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change from baseline in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (2.68 mg/dL vs -2.59 mg/dL). The mean change in fasting glucose for adolescents exposed at least 24 weeks was 3.1 mg/dL (N=121). Table 3 shows short-term and long-term changes in fasting blood glucose from adolescent olanzapine monotherapy studies.

7.5 Hyperlipidemia

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed with olanzapine/fluoxetine use. Clinical monitoring, including baseline and periodic follow-up lipid evaluations in patients using olanzapine/fluoxetine, is recommended.

Clinically meaningful, and sometimes very high (>500 mg/dL), elevations in triglyceride levels have been observed with olanzapine/fluoxetine use. Clinically meaningful increases in total cholesterol have also been seen with olanzapine/fluoxetine use.

In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients had an increase from baseline in mean random total cholesterol of 12.1 mg/dL compared to an increase from baseline in mean random total cholesterol of 4.8 mg/dL for olanzapine-treated patients and a decrease in mean random total cholesterol of 5.5 mg/dL for placebo-treated patients.

In long-term olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination studies (at least 48 weeks), changes (at least once) in nonfasting total cholesterol from normal at baseline to high occurred in 12% (N=150) and changes from borderline to high occurred in 56.6% (N=143) of patients. The mean change in nonfasting total cholesterol was 11.3 mg/dL (N= 426).

7.6 Weight Gain

Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting olanzapine/fluoxetine. Patients receiving olanzapine/fluoxetine should receive regular monitoring of weight.

In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, the mean weight increase for olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients was greater than placebo-treated patients [4 kg (8.8 lb) vs -0.3 kg (-0.7 lb)]. Twenty-two percent of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients gained at least 7% of their baseline weight, with a median exposure of 6 weeks. This was greater than in placebo-treated patients (1.8%). Approximately 3% of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients gained at least 15% of their baseline weight, with a median exposure of 8 weeks. This was greater than in placebo-treated patients (0%). Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.5% of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients and 0% of placebo-treated patients.

In long-term olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination studies (at least 48 weeks), the mean weight gain was 6.7 kg (14.7 lb) (median exposure of 448 days, N=431). The percentages of patients who gained at least 7%, 15% or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 66%, 33%, and 10%, respectively. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 1.2% of patients treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination following at least 48 weeks of exposure.

7.7 Serotonin Syndrome

The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including olanzapine/fluoxetine, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).

Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.

The concomitant use of olanzapine/fluoxetine with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. Olanzapine/fluoxetine should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking olanzapine/fluoxetine. Olanzapine/fluoxetine should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see Dosage and Administration and Contraindications].

If concomitant use of olanzapine/fluoxetine with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan and St. John's Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.

Treatment with olanzapine/fluoxetine and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

7.8 Allergic Reactions and Rash

In olanzapine/fluoxetine premarketing controlled clinical studies, the overall incidence of rash or allergic reactions in olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients [4.6% (26/571)] was similar to that of placebo [5.2% (25/477)]. The majority of the cases of rash and/or urticaria were mild; however, 3 patients discontinued (1 due to rash, which was moderate in severity and 2 due to allergic reactions, 1 of which included face edema).

Whether these systemic reactions and rash have a common underlying cause or are due to different etiologies or pathogenic processes is not known. Furthermore, a specific underlying immunologic basis for these reactions has not been identified. Upon the appearance of rash or of other possible allergic phenomena for which an alternative etiology cannot be identified, olanzapine/fluoxetine should be discontinued.

7.9 Activation of Mania/Hypomania

A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of Bipolar Disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a manic episode in patients at risk for Bipolar Disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described for clinical worsening and suicide risk represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for Bipolar Disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, Bipolar Disorder, and depression. It should be noted that olanzapine/fluoxetine is approved for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder.

7.10 Tardive Dyskinesia

A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.

The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses or may even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.

The incidence of dyskinetic movement in olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients was infrequent. The mean score on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) in the olanzapine/fluoxetine-controlled database across clinical studies involving olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients decreased from baseline. Nonetheless, olanzapine/fluoxetine should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the risk of tardive dyskinesia. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine/fluoxetine, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with olanzapine/fluoxetine despite the presence of the syndrome. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.

7.11 Orthostatic Hypotension

Olanzapine/fluoxetine may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period.

Olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications).

7.12 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis

Class Effect — In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including olanzapine/fluoxetine. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.

Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include preexisting low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of olanzapine/fluoxetine should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.

Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue olanzapine/fluoxetine and have their WBC followed until recovery.

7.13 Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. olanzapine/fluoxetine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

7.14 Seizures

Seizures occurred in 0.2% (4/2547) of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients during open-label clinical studies. No seizures occurred in the controlled olanzapine/fluoxetine studies. Seizures have also been reported with both olanzapine and fluoxetine monotherapy. Olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Olanzapine/fluoxetine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of ≥65 years of age.

7.15 Abnormal Bleeding

SNRIs and SSRIs , including fluoxetine, may increase the risk of bleeding reactions. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (casecontrol and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding reactions related to SNRIs and SSRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of olanzapine/fluoxetine and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation [see Drug Interactions].

7.16 Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia has been reported during treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine and olanzapine/fluoxetine. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported and appeared to be reversible when olanzapine/fluoxetine was discontinued. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SNRIs and SSRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk [see Use in Specific Populations]. Discontinuation of olanzapine/fluoxetine should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.

Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

7.17 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

Sedation-related adverse reactions were commonly reported with olanzapine/fluoxetine treatment occurring at an incidence of 26.6% in olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients compared with 10.9% in placebo-treated patients. Sedation-related adverse reactions (sedation, somnolence, hypersomnia, and lethargy) led to discontinuation in 2% (15/771) of patients in the controlled clinical studies. As with any CNS-active drug, olanzapine/fluoxetine has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that olanzapine/fluoxetine therapy does not affect them adversely.

7.18 Body Temperature Regulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic drugs. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing olanzapine/fluoxetine for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration).

7.19 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with olanzapine/fluoxetine in patients with concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. The following precautions for the individual components may be applicable to olanzapine/fluoxetine.

Olanzapine exhibits in vitro muscarinic receptor affinity. In premarketing clinical studies, olanzapine/fluoxetine was associated with constipation, dry mouth, and tachycardia, all adverse reactions possibly related to cholinergic antagonism. Such adverse reactions were not often the basis for study discontinuations; olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used with caution in patients with clinically significant prostatic hypertrophy, narrow angle glaucoma, a history of paralytic ileus, or related conditions.

As with other CNS-active drugs, olanzapine/fluoxetine should be used with caution in elderly patients with dementia. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. If the prescriber elects to treat elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, vigilance should be exercised [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions].

Olanzapine/fluoxetine has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from clinical studies during the premarket testing.

Caution is advised when using olanzapine/fluoxetine in cardiac patients and in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses [see Warnings and Precautions].

7.20 Hyperprolactinemia

As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, olanzapine/fluoxetine elevates prolactin levels, and a modest elevation persists during administration. Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.

Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. As is common with compounds that increase prolactin release, an increase in mammary gland neoplasia was observed in the olanzapine carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice and rats. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.

In controlled clinical studies of olanzapine/fluoxetine (up to 12 weeks), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 28% of adults treated with olanzapine/fluoxetine as compared to 5% of placebo-treated patients. The elevations persisted throughout administration of olanzapine/fluoxetine. In a pooled analysis from clinical studies including 2929 adults treated with olanzapine/fluoxetine, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events (1% [20/1946] of females), sexual function-related events (7% [192/2929] of females and males), and breast-related events (0.8% [16/1946] of females, 0.2% [2/983] of males).

7.21 Concomitant Use of Olanzapine and Fluoxetine Products

Olanzapine/fluoxetine contains the same active ingredients that are in Zyprexa®, Zyprexa® Zydis® (olanzapine), and in Prozac®, Prozac® Weekly™, and Sarafem® (fluoxetine HCl). Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications concomitantly with olanzapine/fluoxetine [see Overdosage].

7.22 Long Elimination Half-Life of Fluoxetine

Because of the long elimination half-lives of fluoxetine and its major active metabolite, changes in dose will not be fully reflected in plasma for several weeks, affecting both strategies for titration to final dose and withdrawal from treatment. This is of potential consequence when drug discontinuation is required or when drugs are prescribed that might interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following the discontinuation of fluoxetine.

7.23 Discontinuation of Treatment with Olanzapine/Fluoxetine

During marketing of fluoxetine, a component of olanzapine/fluoxetine, SNRIs, and SSRIs, there have been spontaneous reports of adverse reactions occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, and hypomania. While these reactions are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. Plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration decrease gradually at the conclusion of therapy, which may minimize the risk of discontinuation symptoms with this drug [see Dosage and Administration].

7.24 Laboratory Tests

Fasting blood glucose testing and lipid profile at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

8. ADVERSE REACTIONS

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect or predict the rates observed in practice.

8.1 Clinical Trials Experience

The information below is derived from a clinical study database for olanzapine/fluoxetine consisting of 2547 patients with treatment resistant depression, depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder with psychosis, or sexual dysfunction with approximately 1085 patient-years of exposure. The conditions and duration of treatment with olanzapine/fluoxetine varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, fixed-dose and dose-titration studies, and short-term or long-term exposure.

Adverse reactions were recorded by clinical investigators using descriptive terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse reactions without first grouping similar types of reactions into a limited (i.e., reduced) number of standardized reaction categories.

In the tables and tabulations that follow, MedDRA or COSTART Dictionary terminology has been used to classify reported adverse reactions. The data in the tables represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. It is possible that reactions reported during therapy were not necessarily related to drug exposure.

The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables and tabulations cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing clinician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the population studied.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — Overall, 11.3% of the 771 patients in the olanzapine/fluoxetine group discontinued due to adverse reactions compared with 4.4% of the 477 patients for placebo. Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation associated with the use of olanzapine/fluoxetine (incidence of at least 1% for olanzapine/fluoxetine and greater than that for placebo) using MedDRA Dictionary coding were weight increased (2%) and sedation (1%) versus placebo patients which had 0% incidence of weight increased and sedation.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — The most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine/fluoxetine (incidence ≥5% and at least twice that for placebo in the olanzapine/fluoxetine-controlled database) using MedDRA Dictionary coding were: disturbance in attention, dry mouth, fatigue, hypersomnia, increased appetite, peripheral edema, sedation, somnolence, tremor, vision blurred, and weight increased. Adverse reactions reported in clinical trials of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination are generally consistent with treatment-emergent adverse reactions during olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy.

Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More in Short-Term Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — Table 1 enumerates the treatment-emergent adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine/fluoxetine (incidence of at least 2% for olanzapine/fluoxetine and twice or more than for placebo). The olanzapine/fluoxetine-controlled column includes patients with various diagnoses while the placebo column includes only patients with bipolar depression and major depression with psychotic features.

Table 1: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Dystonia, Class Effect for Antipsychotics — Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, the frequency and severity are greater with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. In general, an elevated risk of acute dystonia may be observed in males and younger age groups receiving antipsychotics; however, events of dystonia have been reported infrequently (<1%) with the olanzapine and fluoxetine combination.

Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Studies

Sexual Dysfunction — In the pool of controlled olanzapine/fluoxetine studies in patients with bipolar depression, there were higher rates of the treatment-emergent adverse reactions decreased libido, anorgasmia, impotence and abnormal ejaculation in the olanzapine/fluoxetine group than in the placebo group. One case of decreased libido led to discontinuation in the olanzapine/fluoxetine group. In the controlled studies that contained a fluoxetine arm, the rates of decreased libido and abnormal ejaculation in the olanzapine/fluoxetine group were less than the rates in the fluoxetine group. None of the differences were statistically significant.

Sexual dysfunction, including priapism, has been reported with all SSRIs. While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.

Vital Signs and Laboratory Studies

Vital Signs — Tachycardia, bradycardia, and orthostatic hypotension have occurred in olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]. The mean standing pulse rate of olanzapine/fluoxetine-treated patients was reduced by 0.7 beats/min.

Laboratory Changes — In olanzapine/fluoxetine clinical studies, (including treatment resistant depression, depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder with psychosis, or sexual dysfunction) olanzapine/fluoxetine was associated with statistically significantly greater frequencies for the following treatment-emergent findings in laboratory analytes (normal at baseline to abnormal at any time during the trial) compared to placebo: elevated prolactin (27.6% vs 4.8%); elevated urea nitrogen (2.8% vs 0.8%); elevated uric acid (2.9% vs 0.5%); low albumin (2.7% vs 0.3%); low bicarbonate (14.1% vs 8.8%); low hemoglobin (2.6% vs 0%); low inorganic phosphorus (1.9% vs 0.3%); low lymphocytes (1.9% vs 0%); and low total bilirubin (15.3% vs 3.9%).

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of olanzapine/fluoxetine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is difficult to reliably estimate their frequency or evaluate a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally (but not necessarily causally) related to olanzapine/fluoxetine therapy include the following: rhabdomyolysis and venous thromboembolic events (including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis).

9. OVERDOSAGE

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — During premarketing clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, overdose of both fluoxetine and olanzapine were reported in 5 study subjects. Four of the 5 subjects experienced loss of consciousness (3) or coma (1). No fatalities occurred.

Adverse reactions involving overdose of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination, and olanzapine/fluoxetine, have been reported spontaneously to Eli Lilly and Company. An overdose of combination therapy is defined as confirmed or suspected ingestion of a dose of >20 mg olanzapine in combination with a dose of >80 mg fluoxetine. Adverse reactions associated with these reports included somnolence (sedation), impaired consciousness (coma), impaired neurologic function (ataxia, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria), arrhythmias, lethargy, essential tremor, agitation, acute psychosis, hypotension, hypertension, and aggression. Fatalities have been confounded by exposure to additional substances including alcohol, thioridazine, oxycodone, and propoxyphene.

Olanzapine — In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia as well as a patient that experienced sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension.

Eli Lilly and Company has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Fluoxetine — Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine is estimated to be over 38 million patients (circa 1999). Of the 1578 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195 deaths.

Among 633 adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine alone, 34 resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15 patients experienced sequelae after overdose, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, impotence, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206 patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal overdose were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine in adult patients was 8 grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520 mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established.

Among pediatric patients (ages 3 months to 17 years), there were 156 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Six patients died, 127 patients completely recovered, 1 patient experienced renal failure, and 22 patients had an unknown outcome. One of the 6 fatalities was a 9-year-old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette’s Syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all 6 overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was 3 grams, which was non-lethal.

Other important adverse reactions reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) included coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as QT-interval prolongation and ventricular tachycardia, including torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.

Management of Overdose

In managing overdose, the possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. In case of acute overdose, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate ventilation, which may include intubation. Induction of emesis is not recommended as the possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reactions of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk for aspiration. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.

A specific precaution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken olanzapine/fluoxetine and may have ingested excessive quantities of a TCA (tricyclic antidepressant). In such cases, accumulation of the parent TCA and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of serious sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation.

Due to the large volume of distribution of olanzapine and fluoxetine, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidote for either fluoxetine or olanzapine overdose is known. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with β-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.

The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR).

10. DRUG INTERACTIONS

The risks of using olanzapine/fluoxetine in combination with other drugs have not been extensively evaluated in systematic studies. The drug-drug interactions sections of fluoxetine and olanzapine are applicable to olanzapine/fluoxetine. As with all drugs, the potential for interaction by a variety of mechanisms (e.g., pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic drug inhibition or enhancement, etc.) is a possibility. In evaluating individual cases, consideration should be given to using lower initial doses of the concomitantly administered drugs, using conservative titration schedules, and monitoring of clinical status.

10.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)

Olanzapine/fluoxetine should not be used in combination with an MAOI, or within a minimum of 14 days of discontinuing therapy with an MAOI. There have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal reactions (including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma) in patients receiving fluoxetine in combination with an MAOI, and in patients who have recently discontinued fluoxetine and are then started on an MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions]. Since fluoxetine and its major metabolite have very long elimination half-lives, at least 5 weeks (perhaps longer, especially if fluoxetine has been prescribed chronically and/or at higher doses) should be allowed after stopping olanzapine/fluoxetine before starting an MAOI.

10.2 CNS Acting Drugs

Caution is advised if the concomitant administration of olanzapine/fluoxetine and other CNS-active drugs is required. In evaluating individual cases, consideration should be given to using lower initial doses of the concomitantly administered drugs, using conservative titration schedules, and monitoring of clinical status.

10.3 Serotonergic Drugs

Based on the mechanism of action of SNRIs and SSRIs, including olanzapine/fluoxetine, and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when olanzapine/fluoxetine is coadministered with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, such as triptans, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non-selective MAOI), lithium, tramadol, or St. John’s Wort [see Warnings and Precautions]. The concomitant use of olanzapine/fluoxetine with SNRIs, SSRIs, or tryptophan is not recommended [see Drug Interactions].

10.4 Triptans

There have been rare postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of an SSRI and a triptan. If concomitant treatment of olanzapine/fluoxetine with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases [see Warnings and Precautions].

10.5 Tryptophan

Five patients receiving fluoxetine in combination with tryptophan experienced adverse reactions, including agitation, restlessness, and gastrointestinal distress. Concomitant use with tryptophan is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

10.6 Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis (e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin)

Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SNRIs or SSRIs are coadministered with warfarin [see Warnings and Precautions]. Warfarin (20-mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics. Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when olanzapine/fluoxetine is initiated or discontinued.

10.7 Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

There are no clinical studies establishing the benefit of the combined use of ECT and fluoxetine. There have been rare reports of prolonged seizures in patients on fluoxetine receiving ECT treatment [see Warnings and Precautions].

10.8 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Olanzapine/Fluoxetine

Benzodiazepines — Co-administration of diazepam with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine [see Drug Interactions].

Inducers of 1A2 — Carbamazepine therapy (200 mg BID) causes an approximate 50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance [see Drug Interactions].

Alcohol — Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics [see Drug Interactions].

Inhibitors of CYP1A2 — Fluvoxamine decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine administration of 54% in female nonsmokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is 52% and 108%, respectively. Lower doses of the olanzapine component of olanzapine/fluoxetine should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.

The Effect of Other Drugs on Olanzapine — Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of CYP2D6, decreases olanzapine clearance a small amount. Agents that induce CYP1A2 or glucuronyl transferase enzymes, such as omeprazole and rifampin, may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance. The effect of CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine and some fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on olanzapine/fluoxetine has not been evaluated. Although olanzapine is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, induction or inhibition of a single enzyme may appreciably alter olanzapine clearance. Therefore, a dosage increase (for induction) or a dosage decrease (for inhibition) may need to be considered with specific drugs.

10.9 Potential for Olanzapine/Fluoxetine to Affect Other Drugs

Pimozide — Concomitant use of fluoxetine and pimozide is contraindicated. Clinical studies of pimozide with other antidepressants demonstrate an increase in drug interaction or QTc prolongation. While a specific study with pimozide and fluoxetine has not been conducted, the potential for drug interactions or QTc prolongation warrants restricting the concurrent use of pimozide and fluoxetine. [See Contraindications].

Carbamazepine — Patients on stable doses of carbamazepine have developed elevated plasma anticonvulsant concentrations and clinical anticonvulsant toxicity following initiation of concomitant fluoxetine treatment.

Alcohol — The coadministration of ethanol with olanzapine/fluoxetine may potentiate sedation and orthostatic hypotension [see Drug Interactions].

Thioridazine — Thioridazine should not be administered with olanzapine/fluoxetine or administered within a minimum of 5 weeks after discontinuation of olanzapine/fluoxetine.

In a study of 19 healthy male subjects, which included 6 slow and 13 rapid hydroxylators of debrisoquin, a single 25-mg oral dose of thioridazine produced a 2.4-fold higher Cmax and a 4.5-fold higher AUC for thioridazine in the slow hydroxylators compared with the rapid hydroxylators. The rate of debrisoquin hydroxylation is felt to depend on the level of CYP2D6 isozyme activity. Thus, this study suggests that drugs that inhibit CYP2D6, such as certain SSRIs, including fluoxetine, will produce elevated plasma levels of thioridazine [see Contraindications].

Thioridazine administration produces a dose-related prolongation of the QTc interval, which is associated with serious ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias and sudden death. This risk is expected to increase with fluoxetine-induced inhibition of thioridazine metabolism [see Contraindications].

Due to the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated thioridazine plasma levels, thioridazine should not be administered with fluoxetine or within a minimum of 5 weeks after fluoxetine has been discontinued [see Contraindications].

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) — Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.

In 2 fluoxetine studies, previously stable plasma levels of imipramine and desipramine have increased >2- to 10-fold when fluoxetine has been administered in combination. This influence may persist for 3 weeks or longer after fluoxetine is discontinued. Thus, the dose of TCA may need to be reduced and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when olanzapine/fluoxetine is coadministered or has been recently discontinued].

Antihypertensive Agents — Because of the potential for olanzapine to induce hypotension, olanzapine/fluoxetine may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents [see Warnings and Precautions].

Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists — The olanzapine component of olanzapine/fluoxetine may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.

Benzodiazepines — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam.
When concurrently administered with fluoxetine, the half-life of diazepam may be prolonged in some patients. Coadministration of alprazolam and fluoxetine has resulted in increased alprazolam plasma concentrations and in further psychomotor performance decrement due to increased alprazolam levels.

Clozapine — Elevation of blood levels of clozapine has been observed in patients receiving concomitant fluoxetine.

Haloperidol — Elevation of blood levels of haloperidol has been observed in patients receiving concomitant fluoxetine.

Phenytoin — Patients on stable doses of phenytoin have developed elevated plasma levels of phenytoin with clinical phenytoin toxicity following initiation of concomitant fluoxetine.

Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6 In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP2D6. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by this enzyme.

Fluoxetine inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 and may make individuals with normal CYP2D6 metabolic activity resemble a poor metabolizer. Coadministration of fluoxetine with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6, including certain antidepressants (e.g., TCAs), antipsychotics (e.g., phenothiazines and most atypicals), and antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide, and others) should be approached with caution. Therapy with medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 system and that have a relatively narrow therapeutic index should be initiated at the low end of the dose range if a patient is receiving fluoxetine concurrently or has taken it in the previous 5 weeks. If fluoxetine is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving a drug metabolized by CYP2D6, the need for a decreased dose of the original medication should be considered. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic index represent the greatest concern (including but not limited to, flecainide, propafenone, vinblastine, and TCAs).

Drugs Metabolized by CYP3A In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.

In an in vivo interaction study involving the coadministration of fluoxetine with single doses of terfenadine (a CYP3A substrate), no increase in plasma terfenadine concentrations occurred with concomitant fluoxetine. In addition, in vitro studies have shown ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A activity, to be at least 100 times more potent than fluoxetine or norfluoxetine as an inhibitor of the metabolism of several substrates for this enzyme, including astemizole, cisapride, and midazolam. These data indicate that fluoxetine’s extent of inhibition of CYP3A activity is not likely to be of clinical significance.

Effect of Olanzapine on Drugs Metabolized by Other CYP Enzymes In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.

Lithium — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of lithium.

There have been reports of both increased and decreased lithium levels when lithium was used concomitantly with fluoxetine. Cases of lithium toxicity and increased serotonergic effects have been reported. Lithium levels should be monitored in patients taking olanzapine/fluoxetine concomitantly with lithium.

Drugs Tightly Bound to Plasma Proteins — The in vitro binding of olanzapine/fluoxetine to human plasma proteins is similar to the individual components. The interaction between olanzapine/fluoxetine and other highly protein-bound drugs has not been fully evaluated. Because fluoxetine is tightly bound to plasma protein, the administration of fluoxetine to a patient taking another drug that is tightly bound to protein (e.g., Coumadin, digitoxin) may cause a shift in plasma concentrations potentially resulting in an adverse effect. Conversely, adverse effects may result from displacement of protein-bound fluoxetine by other tightly bound drugs.

ValproateIn vitro studies using human liver microsomes determined that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit the major metabolic pathway, glucuronidation, of valproate. Further, valproate has little effect on the metabolism of olanzapine in vitro. Thus, a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between olanzapine and valproate is unlikely.

Biperiden — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of biperiden.

Theophylline — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or its metabolites.

11. PHARMACOKINETICS

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Fluoxetine (administered as a 60-mg single dose or 60 mg daily for 8 days) caused a small increase in the mean maximum concentration of olanzapine (16%) following a 5-mg dose, an increase in the mean area under the curve (17%) and a small decrease in mean apparent clearance of olanzapine (16%). In another study, a similar decrease in apparent clearance of olanzapine of 14% was observed following olanzapine doses of 6 or 12 mg with concomitant fluoxetine doses of 25 mg or more. The decrease in clearance reflects an increase in bioavailability. The terminal half-life is not affected, and therefore the time to reach steady state should not be altered. The overall steady-state plasma concentrations of olanzapine and fluoxetine when given as the combination in the therapeutic dose ranges were comparable with those typically attained with each of the monotherapies. The small change in olanzapine clearance, observed in both studies, likely reflects the inhibition of a minor metabolic pathway for olanzapine via CYP2D6 by fluoxetine, a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, and was not deemed clinically significant. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of the individual components is expected to reasonably characterize the overall pharmacokinetics of the combination.

Absorption and Bioavailability

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Following a single oral 12-mg/50-mg dose of olanzapine/fluoxetine, peak plasma concentrations of olanzapine and fluoxetine occur at approximately 4 and 6 hours, respectively. The effect of food on the absorption and bioavailability of olanzapine/fluoxetine has not been evaluated. The bioavailability of olanzapine given as Zyprexa, and the bioavailability of fluoxetine given as Prozac were not affected by food. It is unlikely that there would be a significant food effect on the bioavailability of olanzapine/fluoxetine.

Olanzapine — Olanzapine is well absorbed and reaches peak concentration approximately 6 hours following an oral dose. Food does not affect the rate or extent of olanzapine absorption when olanzapine is given as Zyprexa. It is eliminated extensively by first pass metabolism, with approximately 40% of the dose metabolized before reaching the systemic circulation.

Fluoxetine — Following a single oral 40-mg dose, peak plasma concentrations of fluoxetine from 15 to 55 ng/mL are observed after 6 to 8 hours. Food does not appear to affect the systemic bioavailability of fluoxetine given as Prozac, although it may delay its absorption by 1 to 2 hours, which is probably not clinically significant.

Distribution

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — The in vitro binding to human plasma proteins of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination is similar to the binding of the individual components.

Olanzapine — Olanzapine is extensively distributed throughout the body, with a volume of distribution of approximately 1000 L. It is 93% bound to plasma proteins over the concentration range of 7 to 1100 ng/mL, binding primarily to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein.

Fluoxetine — Over the concentration range from 200 to 1000 ng/mL, approximately 94.5% of fluoxetine is bound in vitro to human serum proteins, including albumin and α1-glycoprotein. The interaction between fluoxetine and other highly protein-bound drugs has not been fully evaluated [see Drug Interactions].

Metabolism and Elimination

Olanzapine/Fluoxetine — Olanzapine/fluoxetine therapy yielded steady-state concentrations of norfluoxetine similar to those seen with fluoxetine in the therapeutic dose range.

Olanzapine — Olanzapine displays linear pharmacokinetics over the clinical dosing range. Its half-life ranges from 21 to 54 hours (5th to 95th percentile; mean of 30 hr), and apparent plasma clearance ranges from 12 to 47 L/hr (5th to 95th percentile; mean of 25 L/hr). Administration of olanzapine once daily leads to steady-state concentrations in about 1 week that are approximately twice the concentrations after single doses. Plasma concentrations, half-life, and clearance of olanzapine may vary between individuals on the basis of smoking status, gender, and age [see Dosage and Administration]. Following a single oral dose of 14C-labeled olanzapine, 7% of the dose of olanzapine was recovered in the urine as unchanged drug, indicating that olanzapine is highly metabolized. Approximately 57% and 30% of the dose was recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. In the plasma, olanzapine accounted for only 12% of the AUC for total radioactivity, indicating significant exposure to metabolites. After multiple dosing, the major circulating metabolites were the 10-N-glucuronide, present at steady state at 44% of the concentration of olanzapine, and 4´-N-desmethyl olanzapine, present at steady state at 31% of the concentration of olanzapine. Both metabolites lack pharmacological activity at the concentrations observed.

Direct glucuronidation and CYP450-mediated oxidation are the primary metabolic pathways for olanzapine. In vitro studies suggest that CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and the flavin-containing monooxygenase system are involved in olanzapine oxidation. CYP2D6-mediated oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in vivo, because the clearance of olanzapine is not reduced in subjects who are deficient in this enzyme.

Fluoxetine — Fluoxetine is a racemic mixture (50/50) of R-fluoxetine and S-fluoxetine enantiomers. In animal models, both enantiomers are specific and potent serotonin uptake inhibitors with essentially equivalent pharmacologic activity. The S-fluoxetine enantiomer is eliminated more slowly and is the predominant enantiomer present in plasma at steady state.

Fluoxetine is extensively metabolized in the liver to its only identified active metabolite, norfluoxetine, via the CYP2D6 pathway. A number of unidentified metabolites exist.

In animal models, S-norfluoxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake and has activity essentially equivalent to R- or S-fluoxetine. R-norfluoxetine is significantly less potent than the parent drug in the inhibition of serotonin uptake. The primary route of elimination appears to be hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites excreted by the kidney.

Clinical Issues Related to Metabolism and Elimination

Variability in Metabolism — A subset (about 7%) of the population has reduced activity of the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6. Such individuals are referred to as “poor metabolizers” of drugs such as debrisoquin, dextromethorphan, and the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In a study involving labeled and unlabeled enantiomers administered as a racemate, these individuals metabolized S-fluoxetine at a slower rate and thus achieved higher concentrations of S-fluoxetine. Consequently, concentrations of S-norfluoxetine at steady state were lower. The metabolism of R-fluoxetine in these poor metabolizers appears normal. When compared with normal metabolizers, the total sum at steady state of the plasma concentrations of the 4 enantiomers was not significantly greater among poor metabolizers. Thus, the net pharmacodynamic activities were essentially the same. Alternative nonsaturable pathways (non-CYP2D6) also contribute to the metabolism of fluoxetine. This explains how fluoxetine achieves a steady-state concentration rather than increasing without limit.

Because the metabolism of fluoxetine, like that of a number of other compounds including TCAs and other selective serotonin antidepressants, involves the CYP2D6 system, concomitant therapy with drugs also metabolized by this enzyme system (such as the TCAs) may lead to drug interactions [see Drug Interactions].

Accumulation and Slow Elimination — The relatively slow elimination of fluoxetine (elimination half-life of 1 to 3 days after acute administration and 4 to 6 days after chronic administration) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (elimination half-life of 4 to 16 days after acute and chronic administration), leads to significant accumulation of these active species in chronic use and delayed attainment of steady state, even when a fixed dose is used. After 30 days of dosing at 40 mg/day, plasma concentrations of fluoxetine in the range of 91 to 302 ng/mL and norfluoxetine in the range of 72 to 258 ng/mL have been observed. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine were higher than those predicted by single-dose studies, because the metabolism of fluoxetine is not proportional to dose. However, norfluoxetine appears to have linear pharmacokinetics. Its mean terminal half-life after a single dose was 8.6 days and after multiple dosing was 9.3 days. Steady-state levels after prolonged dosing are similar to levels seen at 4 to 5 weeks.

The long elimination half-lives of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine assure that, even when dosing is stopped, active drug substance will persist in the body for weeks (primarily depending on individual patient characteristics, previous dosing regimen, and length of previous therapy at discontinuation). This is of potential consequence when drug discontinuation is required or when drugs are prescribed that might interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following the discontinuation of fluoxetine.

Specific Populations

Geriatric — Based on the individual pharmacokinetic profiles of olanzapine and fluoxetine, the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine/fluoxetine may be altered in geriatric patients. Caution should be used in dosing the elderly, especially if there are other factors that might additively influence drug metabolism and/or pharmacodynamic sensitivity.

In a study involving 24 healthy subjects, the mean elimination half-life of olanzapine was about 1.5 times greater in elderly subjects (≥65 years of age) than in non-elderly subjects (<65 years of age).

The disposition of single doses of fluoxetine in healthy elderly subjects (≥65 years of age) did not differ significantly from that in younger normal subjects. However, given the long half-life and nonlinear disposition of the drug, a single-dose study is not adequate to rule out the possibility of altered pharmacokinetics in the elderly, particularly if they have systemic illness or are receiving multiple drugs for concomitant diseases. The effects of age upon the metabolism of fluoxetine have been investigated in 260 elderly but otherwise healthy depressed patients (≥60 years of age) who received 20 mg fluoxetine for 6 weeks. Combined fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine plasma concentrations were 209.3 ± 85.7 ng/mL at the end of 6 weeks. No unusual age-associated pattern of adverse reactions was observed in those elderly patients.

Renal Impairment — The pharmacokinetics of olanzapine/fluoxetine has not been studied in patients with renal impairment. However, olanzapine and fluoxetine individual pharmacokinetics do not differ significantly in patients with renal impairment. Olanzapine/fluoxetine dosing adjustment based upon renal impairment is not routinely required.

Because olanzapine is highly metabolized before excretion and only 7% of the drug is excreted unchanged, renal dysfunction alone is unlikely to have a major impact on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of olanzapine were similar in patients with severe renal impairment and normal subjects, indicating that dosage adjustment based upon the degree of renal impairment is not required. In addition, olanzapine is not removed by dialysis. The effect of renal impairment on olanzapine metabolite elimination has not been studied.

In depressed patients on dialysis (N=12), fluoxetine administered as 20 mg once daily for 2 months produced steady-state fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations comparable with those seen in patients with normal renal function. While the possibility exists that renally excreted metabolites of fluoxetine may accumulate to higher levels in patients with severe renal dysfunction, use of a lower or less frequent dose is not routinely necessary in renally impaired patients.

Hepatic Impairment — Based on the individual pharmacokinetic profiles of olanzapine and fluoxetine, the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine/fluoxetine may be altered in patients with hepatic impairment. The lowest starting dose should be considered for patients with hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration and Warnings and Precautions].

Although the presence of hepatic impairment may be expected to reduce the clearance of olanzapine, a study of the effect of impaired liver function in subjects (N=6) with clinically significant cirrhosis (Childs-Pugh Classification A and B) revealed little effect on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine.

As might be predicted from its primary site of metabolism, liver impairment can affect the elimination of fluoxetine. The elimination half-life of fluoxetine was prolonged in a study of cirrhotic patients, with a mean of 7.6 days compared with the range of 2 to 3 days seen in subjects without liver disease; norfluoxetine elimination was also delayed, with a mean duration of 12 days for cirrhotic patients compared with the range of 7 to 9 days in normal subjects.

Gender — Clearance of olanzapine is approximately 30% lower in women than in men. There were, however, no apparent differences between men and women in effectiveness or adverse effects. Dosage modifications based on gender should not be needed.

Smoking Status — Olanzapine clearance is about 40% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, although dosage modifications are not routinely required.

Race — No olanzapine/fluoxetine pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effects of race. In vivo studies have shown that exposures to olanzapine are similar among Japanese, Chinese and Caucasians, especially after normalization for body weight differences. Dosage modifications for race, therefore, are not routinely required.

Combined Effects — The combined effects of age, smoking, and gender could lead to substantial pharmacokinetic differences in populations. The clearance of olanzapine in young smoking males, for example, may be 3 times higher than that in elderly nonsmoking females. Olanzapine/fluoxetine dosing modification may be necessary in patients who exhibit a combination of factors that may result in slower metabolism of the olanzapine component [see Dosage and Administration].

12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

1) How Available:

a) Brand name: SYMBYAX, by Lilly.

b) Generic drugs: Olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride, by various manufacturers.

2) How Supplied:

Olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules, USP (by Sandoz) are available as follows:

3 mg/25 mg, is yellow ivory opaque body and peach opaque cap hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘ SANDOZ’ ‘651’ in black ink on both cap and body filled with yellow colored powder.

NDC 0781-2195-31, bottles of 30 capsules

6 mg/25 mg, yellow ivory opaque body and orange opaque cap hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘SANDOZ’ ‘664’ in black ink on both cap and body filled with yellow colored powder.

NDC 0781-2191-31, bottle of 30 capsules

6 mg/50 mg, light gray opaque body and orange opaque cap hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘SANDOZ’ ‘666’ in black ink on both cap and body filled with yellow colored powder.

NDC 0781-2193-31, bottle of 30 capsules

12 mg/25 mg, yellow ivory opaque body and red opaque cap hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘SANDOZ’ ‘665’ in black ink on both cap and body filled with yellow colored powder.

NDC 0781-2192-31, bottle of 30 capsules

12 mg/50 mg, light grey opaque body and red opaque cap hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘SANDOZ’ ‘667’ in black ink on both cap and body filled with yellow colored powder.

NDC 0781-2194-31, bottle of 30 capsules

3) Storage:

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from light and moisture.

Rx only

Rev 01/13