Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate Capsules and Powder for Oral Suspension
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is a combination of omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, and sodium bicarbonate, an antacid.
Omeprazole is a substituted benzimidazole, 5-methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3, 5- dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl] sulfinyl]-1-H-benzimidazole, a racemic mixture of two enantiomers that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Its molecular formula is C17H19N3O3S, with a molecular weight of 345.42. The structural formula is:
Omeprazole is a white to off-white crystalline powder which melts with decomposition at about 155°C. It is a weak base, freely soluble in ethanol and methanol, and slightly soluble in acetone and isopropanol and very slightly soluble in water. The stability of omeprazole is a function of pH; it is rapidly degraded in acid media, but has acceptable stability under alkaline conditions.
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is supplied as immediate-release capsules and unit-dose packets as powder for oral suspension.
Each capsule contains either 40 mg or 20 mg of omeprazole and 1100 mg of sodium bicarbonate with the following excipients: croscarmellose sodium and sodium stearyl fumarate.
Packets of powder for oral suspension contain either 40 mg or 20 mg of omeprazole and 1680 mg of sodium bicarbonate with the following excipients: xylitol, sucrose, sucralose, xanthan gum, and flavorings.
|2. INDICATIONS AND USAGE|
2.1 Duodenal Ulcer
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy.
2.2 Gastric Ulcer
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is indicated for short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer.
2.3 Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD.
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is indicated for the short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of erosive esophagitis which has been diagnosed by endoscopy.
The efficacy of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate used for longer than 8 weeks in these patients has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, it may be helpful to give up to an additional 4 weeks of treatment. If there is recurrence of erosive esophagitis or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4-8 week courses of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate may be considered.
2.4 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate capsules is indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months.
2.5 Reduction of Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Critically Ill Patients (40mg oral suspension only)
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate powder for oral suspension 40 mg/1680 mg is indicated for the reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients.
|3. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION|
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is available as a capsule and as a powder for oral suspension in 20 mg and 40 mg strengths of omeprazole for adult use. Directions for use for each indication are summarized in Table 1. All recommended doses throughout the labeling are based upon omeprazole.
Since both the 20 mg and 40 mg oral suspension packets contain the same amount of sodium bicarbonate (1680 mg), two packets of 20 mg are not equivalent to one packet of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate 40 mg; therefore, two 20 mg packets of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate should not be substituted for one packet of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate 40 mg.
Since both the 20 mg and 40 mg capsules contain the same amount of sodium bicarbonate (1100 mg), two capsules of 20 mg are not equivalent to one capsule of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate 40 mg; therefore, two 20 mg capsules of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate should not be substituted for one capsule of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate 40 mg.
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate should be taken on an empty stomach at least one hour before a meal.
For patients receiving continuous Nasogastric (NG)/ Orogastric (OG) tube feeding, enteral feeding should be suspended approximately 3 hours before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate powder for oral suspension.
Table 1: Recommended Doses of Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate by Indication for Adults 18 Years and Older
* Most patients heal within 4 weeks. Some patients may require an additional 4 weeks of therapy.
** For additional information.
+ For additional information, [See Indications USAGE section].
Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis.
Administration of Capsules
Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate Capsules should be swallowed intact with water. DO NOT USE OTHER LIQUIDS. DO NOT OPEN CAPSULE AND SPRINKLE CONTENTS INTO FOOD.
Preparation and Administration of Suspension
Directions for use: Empty packet contents into a small cup containing 1-2 tablespoons of water. DO NOT USE OTHER LIQUIDS OR FOODS. Stir well and drink immediately. Refill cup with water and drink.
If omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is to be administered through a nasogastric (NG) or orogastric (OG) tube, the suspension should be constituted with approximately 20 mL of water. DO NOT USE OTHER LIQUIDS OR FOODS. Stir well and administer immediately. An appropriately-sized syringe should be used to instill the suspension in the tube. The suspension should be washed through the tube with 20 mL of water.
Use With Clopidogrel
Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel and omeprazole. Coadministration of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor that is an inhibitor of CYP2C19, reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel if given concomitantly or if given 12 hours apart [see Warnings and Precautions and Drug Interactions].
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any components of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, and urticaria.
|5. MECHANISM OF ACTION|
Omeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus. Animal studies indicate that after rapid disappearance from plasma, omeprazole can be found within the gastric mucosa for a day or more.
Omeprazole is acid labile and thus rapidly degraded by gastric acid. Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate capsule is an immediate-release formulation that contains sodium bicarbonate which raises the gastric pH and thus protects from acid degradation.
|6. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS|
6.1 Usage in Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of omeprazole in pregnant women. The vast majority of reported experience with omeprazole during human pregnancy is first trimester exposure and the duration of use is rarely specified, eg, intermittent vs. chronic. An expert review of published data on experiences with omeprazole use during pregnancy by TERIS – the Teratogen Information System – concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as fair).
Three epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy to the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls. A population-based prospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. In utero exposure to omeprazole was not associated with increased risk of any malformation (odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.50-1.34), low birth weight or low Apgar score. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole exposed infants than the expected number in the normal population. The author concluded that both effects may be random.
A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole). The overall malformation rate was 4.4% (95% CI 3.6-5.3) and the malformation rate for first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 3.6% (95% CI 1.5-8.1). The relative risk of malformations associated with first trimester exposure to omeprazole compared with nonexposed women was 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.2). The study could effectively rule out a relative risk greater than 2.5 for all malformations. Rates of preterm delivery or growth retardation did not differ between the groups.
A controlled prospective observational study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% first trimester exposures). The reported rates of major congenital malformations was 4% for the omeprazole group, 2% for controls exposed to nonteratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls (background incidence of major malformations 1-5%). Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight did not differ between the groups. The sample size in this study has 80% power to detect a 5-fold increase in the rate of major malformation.
Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia.
Reproduction studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 28 times the human dose of 40 mg/day (based on body surface area) and in rabbits at doses up to 28 times the human dose (based on body surface area) did not show any evidence of teratogenicity. In pregnant rabbits, omeprazole at doses about 2.8 to 28 times the human dose of 40 mg/day, (based on body surface area) produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy loss. In rats treated with omeprazole at doses about 2.8 to 28 times the human dose (based on body surface area), dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity occurred in offspring.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal studies and studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm, omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit to pregnant women justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
6.2 Nursing Mothers
Omeprazole concentrations have been measured in breast milk of a woman following oral administration of 20 mg. The peak concentration of omeprazole in breast milk was less than 7% of the peak serum concentration. This concentration would correspond to 0.004 mg of omeprazole in 200 mL of milk. Because omeprazole is excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from omeprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for omeprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be used with caution in nursing mothers.
6.3 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate have not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age.
6.4 Geriatric Use
Omeprazole was administered to over 2,000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly.
6.5 Hepatic Impairment
Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis.
6.6 Renal Impairment
No dosage reduction is necessary.
6.7 Asian Population
Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis.
|7. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS|
7.1 Concomitant Gastric Malignancy
Symptomatic response to therapy with omeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
7.2 Atrophic Gastritis
Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with omeprazole.
7.3 Buffer Content
Each omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate capsule contains 1100 mg (13 mEq) of sodium bicarbonate. The total content of sodium in each capsule is 304 mg.
The sodium content of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate products should be taken into consideration when administering to patients on a sodium restricted diet.
Because omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate products contain sodium bicarbonate, they should be used with caution in patients with Bartter’s syndrome, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and problems with acid-base balance. Long-term administration of bicarbonate with calcium or milk can cause milk-alkali syndrome.
Chronic use of sodium bicarbonate may lead to systemic alkalosis and increased sodium intake can produce edema and weight increase.
7.4 Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea
Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve. [See Adverse Reactions]
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
7.5 Interaction with clopidogrel
Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that interfere with CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions and Pharmacokinetics].
7.6 Bone Fracture
Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis‐related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long‐term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis‐related fractures should be managed according to the established treatment guidelines. [See Dosage and Administration and Adverse Reactions].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically. [See Adverse Reactions].
7.8 Concomitant use of Omeprazole/Sodium Bicarbonate with St John’s Wort or rifampin
Drugs which induce CYP2C19 OR CYP34A (such as St John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations. [See Drug Interactions]. Avoid concomitant use of ZEGERD with St John’s Wort or rifampin.
7.9 Interactions with Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Providers should temporarily stop omeprazole treatment before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.
7.10 Concomitant use of Omeprazole/Sodium Bicarbonate with Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients. [See Drug Interactions].
|8. ADVERSE REACTIONS|
8.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In the U.S. clinical trial population of 465 patients, the adverse reactions summarized in Table 2 were reported to occur in 1% or more of patients on therapy with omeprazole. Numbers in parentheses indicate percentages of the adverse reactions considered by investigators as possibly, probably or definitely related to the drug.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring In 1% or More of Patients on Omeprazole Therapy
Table 3 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred in 1% or more of omeprazole-treated patients from international double-blind, and open-label clinical trials in which 2,631 patients and subjects received omeprazole.
Table 3: Incidence of Adverse Reactions ≥ 1% Causal Relationship not Assessed
A controlled clinical trial was conducted in 359 critically ill patients, comparing omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate 40 mg/1680 mg suspension once daily to I.V. cimetidine 1200 mg/day for up to 14 days. The incidence and total number of AEs experienced by ≥ 3% of patients in either group are presented in Table 4 by body system and preferred term.
Table 4: Number (%) of Critically Ill Patients with Frequently Occurring (≥ 3%) Adverse Events by Body System and Preferred Term
* Clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding was considered a serious adverse event but it is not included in this table.
NOS = Not otherwise specified.
8.2 Post-Marketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole delayed-release capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise.
Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema.
Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.
Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice and elevation of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin].
Metabolic/Nutritional: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, weight gain.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo.
Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain.
Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis.
Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion.
Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision.
Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leucocytosis.
Reports have been received of overdosage with omeprazole in humans. Doses ranged up to 2400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience [see Adverse Reactions]. Symptoms were transient, and no serious clinical outcome has been reported when omeprazole was taken alone. No specific antidote for omeprazole overdosage is known. Omeprazole is extensively protein bound and is, therefore, not readily dialyzable. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.
As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. For current information on treatment of any drug overdose, contact a Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
Single oral doses of omeprazole at 1350, 1339 and 1200 mg/kg were lethal to mice, rats and dogs, respectively. Animals given these doses showed sedation, ptosis, tremors, convulsions and decreased activity, body temperature and respiratory rate and increased depth of respiration.
In addition, a sodium bicarbonate overdose may cause hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and seizures.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS|
Drugs for which Gastric pH can Affect Bioavailability
Because of its profound and long lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion, it is theoretically possible that omeprazole may interfere with absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability (e.g., ketoconazole, ampicillin esters and iron salts). In the clinical trials, antacids were used concomitantly with the administration of omeprazole.
Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 (CYP)
Omeprazole can prolong the elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin, drugs that are metabolized by oxidation in the liver. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Although in normal subjects no interaction with theophylline or propranolol was found, there have been clinical reports of interaction with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram, benzodiazepines). Patients should be monitored to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these drugs when taken concomitantly with omeprazole.
Concomitant administration of omeprazole and voriconazole (a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) resulted in more than doubling of the omeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of omeprazole is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinger- Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses up to 240 mg/day, dose adjustment may be considered. When voriconazole (400 mg Q12h x 1 day, then 200 mg x 6 days) was given with omeprazole (40 mg once daily x 7 days) to healthy subjects, it significantly increased the steady-state Cmax and AUC0-24 of omeprazole, an average of 2 times (90% CI: 1.8, 2.6) and 4 times (90% CI: 3.3, 4.4) respectively as compared to when omeprazole was given without voriconazole.
Concomitant use of atazanavir and proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Coadministration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and thereby reduce its therapeutic effect. Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP2C19. For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, bid) and omeprazole (40 mg, qd), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75% respectively for nelfinavir and M8. Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg, qd) and omeprazole (40 mg, qd, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended. For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported with an increase in AUC by 82%, in Cmax by 75% and in Cmin by 106% following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) bid for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg qd coadministered days 11 to 15. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients. There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole.
Concomitant administration of omeprazole and tacrolimus may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus.
In separate in vivo bioavailability studies, when omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate oral suspension and capsules are administered on an empty stomach 1 hour prior to a meal, the absorption of omeprazole is rapid, with mean peak plasma levels (% CV) of omeprazole being 1954 ng/mL (33%) and 1526 ng/mL (49%), respectively, and time to peak of approximately 30 minutes (range 10-90 min) after a single-dose or repeated-dose administration. Absolute bioavailability of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate powder for oral suspension (compared to I.V. administration) is about 30-40% at doses of 20 – 40 mg, due in large part to presystemic metabolism.
When omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate oral suspension 40 mg/1680 mg was administered in a two-dose loading regimen, the omeprazole AUC(0-inf) (ng ·hr/mL) was 1665 after Dose 1 and 3356 after Dose 2, while Tmax was approximately 30 minutes for both Dose 1 and Dose 2.
Following single or repeated once daily dosing, peak plasma concentrations of omeprazole from omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate are approximately proportional from 20 to 40 mg doses, but a greater than linear mean AUC (three-fold increase) is observed when doubling the dose to 40 mg. The bioavailability of omeprazole from omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate increases upon repeated administration.
When omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is administered 1 hour after a meal, the omeprazole AUC is reduced by approximately 24% relative to administration 1 hour prior to a meal.
Omeprazole is bound to plasma proteins. Protein binding is approximately 95%.
Following single-dose oral administration of omeprazole, the majority of the dose (about 77%) is eliminated in urine as at least six metabolites. Two metabolites have been identified as hydroxyomeprazole and the corresponding carboxylic acid. The remainder of the dose was recoverable in feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the metabolites of omeprazole. Three metabolites have been identified in plasma – the sulfide and sulfone derivatives of omeprazole, and hydroxyomeprazole. These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity.
Following single-dose oral administration of omeprazole, little if any, unchanged drug is excreted in urine. The mean plasma omeprazole half-life in healthy subjects is approximately 1 hour (range 0.4 to 3.2 hours) and the total body clearance is 500-600 mL/min.
The elimination rate of omeprazole was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. Omeprazole was 76% bioavailable when a single 40 mg oral dose of omeprazole (buffered solution) was administered to healthy elderly volunteers, vs. 58% in young volunteers given the same dose. Nearly 70% of the dose was recovered in urine as metabolites of omeprazole and no unchanged drug was detected. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers.
The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate have not been studied in patients < 18 years of age.
In patients with chronic hepatic disease, the bioavailability of omeprazole from a buffered solution increased to approximately 100% compared to an I.V. dose, reflecting decreased first-pass effect, and the mean plasma half-life of the drug increased to nearly 3 hours compared to the mean half-life of 1 hour in normal subjects. Plasma clearance averaged 70 mL/min, compared to a value of 500-600 mL/min in normal subjects. Dose reduction, particularly where maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is indicated, for the hepatically impaired should be considered.
In patients with chronic renal impairment, whose creatinine clearance ranged between 10 and 62 mL/min/1.73 m2, the disposition of omeprazole was very similar to that in healthy volunteers, although there was a slight increase in bioavailability. Because urinary excretion is a primary route of excretion of omeprazole metabolites, their elimination slowed in proportion to the decreased creatinine clearance. No dose reduction is necessary in patients with renal impairment.
In pharmacokinetic studies of single 20 mg omeprazole doses, an increase in AUC of approximately 4-fold was noted in Asian subjects compared with Caucasians. Dose reduction, particularly where maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is indicated, for Asian subjects should be considered.
|12. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING|
1) How Available:
a) Brand name: ZEGERID, by SANTARUS.
b) Generic drugs:
Capsules: Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate, by PAR PHARM.
Powder: No generic drugs.
2) How Supplied:
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate (by PAR PHARM) is available as hard gelatin capsule containing 20 mg of omeprazole and 1100 mg of sodium bicarbonate. The capsule consists of a white opaque body printed with par/397 in black ink and light blue opaque cap.
NDC 49884-397-11 Bottles of 30 capsules
NDC 49884-397-05 Bottles of 500 capsules
Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is available as hard gelatin capsule containing 40 mg of omeprazole and 1100 mg of sodium bicarbonate. The capsule consists of a white opaque body printed with par/455 in black ink and blue opaque cap.
NDC 49884-455-11 Bottles of 30 capsules
NDC 49884-455-05 Bottles of 500 capsules
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 -30°C (59 -86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep this medication out of the hands of children. Keep container tightly closed. Protect from light and moisture.